The purpose of the case studies was to gather information from a variety of sources in order to create a comprehensive picture of strategies used to engage TANF recipients in work and work-related activities. Toward this end, two members of the MPR project team conducted two- to three-day visits to each program during winter and spring 2004. In some sites, we visited two local TANF offices to discern how policies, program services, and administrative procedures are carried out; in other sites, we visited one office (Table I.2). Using semi-structured guided discussion techniques, we interviewed state and local TANF administrators, case managers and supervisors, eligibility workers, other TANF program line staff (such as job developers), administrators and staff at contracted service providers, and staff who handle data collection and reporting as well as management information systems. We also reviewed a small number of case files for various types of recipients, including those who have participated in program activities consistently, sporadically, or not at all. These case file reviews enriched the interview data by providing concrete examples of the concepts and issues raised by interviewees.