The volume contains six papers on survey issues. They address:
- Methods for designing surveys taking into account nonresponse in advance;
- Methods for obtaining high response rates in telephone surveys;
- Methods for obtaining high response rates in in-person surveys;
- The effects of incentive payments;
- Methods for adjusting for missing data in surveys of low-income populations; and
- Measurement error issues in surveys, with a special focus on recall error.
In their paper on Designing Surveys Acknowledging Nonresponse, Groves and Couper first review the basic issues involved in nonresponse, illustrating the problem of bias in means and other statistics, such as differences in means and regression coefficients, and how that bias is related to the magnitude of nonresponse and the size of the difference in outcomes between respondents and nonrespondents. They also briefly review methods of weighting and imputation to adjust for nonresponse after the fact. The authors then discuss the details of the survey process, including the exact process of contacting a respondent and how barriers to that contact arise, noting that welfare reform may generate additional barriers (e.g., because welfare recipients are more likely to be working and hence not at home). They also provide an in-depth discussion of the respondents decision to participate in a survey, noting the importance of the environment, the respondent, and the survey design itself, and how the initial interaction between survey taker and respondent is a key element affecting the participation decision. They propose a fairly ambitious process of interviewer questioning, which involves contingent reactions to different statements by the respondent, a process that would require expert interviewers. They conclude with a list of 10 principles for surveys of the low-income population for improvement in light of nonresponse.
Cantor and Cunningham discuss methods for obtaining high response rates in telephone surveys of welfare and low-income populations in their paper, first identifying best practices and then comparing those to practices used in some welfare leaver telephone surveys. The authors note the overriding importance of recognizing language and cultural diversity among respondents and the need to take such diversity into account in designing content and deploying interviewers. They then discuss specific issues in increasing response rates, including obtaining contact information in the presurvey process (e.g., from administrative records); obtaining informed consent to gather information needed for subsequent tracking; address-related problems with mail surveys; methods for tracing hard-to-locate respondents; dealing with answering machines; the importance of highly trained interviewers, echoing the emphasis of Groves and Couper; considerations in questionnaire design, including the critical nature of the introduction; and refusal conversion. Cantor and Cunningham then review a set of telephone surveys of welfare recipients and welfare leavers. They find that response rates often are quite low and that use of the telephone alone only rarely will obtain response rates greater than 50 percent, which is a very low number by the traditional standards of survey research. They suggest that higher, acceptable response rates will almost surely require substantial in-person followup, which can move the response rate up above 70 percent. The authors note that nonresponse is mainly an issue of inability to locate respondents rather than outright refusals, which makes tracing and locating respondents of great importance. They find that many welfare records are of poor quality to assist in tracing, containing inaccurate and out-of-date locator information, and they emphasize that expertise in tracing is needed in light of the difficulties involved. Refusal conversion is also discussed, with an emphasis again on the need for trained interviewers in using this method. Finally, the authors discuss random-digit dialing telephone surveys of this population (as opposed to surveys based on list samples such as those from welfare records) and explore the additional difficulties that arise with this methodology.
The paper by Weiss and Bailar discusses methods for obtaining high response rates from in-person surveys of the low-income population. The principles are illustrated with five in-person surveys of this population conducted by the National Opinion Research Certer (NORC). All the surveys drew their samples from administrative lists, provided monetary incentives for survey participation, and applied extensive locating methods. Among the issues discussed are the importance of the advance letter, community contacts, and an extensive tracing and locating operation, including field-based tracing on top of office-based tracing. The authors also provide an in-depth discussion of the importance of experienced interviewers for this population, including experience not only in administering an interview, but also in securing cooperation with the survey. The use of traveling interviewers and the importance of good field supervisory staff and site management are then addressed.
In their paper, Singer and Kulka review what is known about the effects of paying respondents for survey participation (incentives). Reviewing both mail and telephone surveys, the authors report that incentives are, overall, effective in increasing response rates; that prepaid incentives are usually more effective than promised incentives; that money is more important than a gift; and that incentives have a greater effect when respondent burden is high and the initial response rate is low. They also note that incentives appear to be effective in panel surveys, even when incentives are not as high in subsequent waves of interviews as they are in the initial wave. After discussing the evidence on whether incentives affect item nonresponse or the distribution of given responses the evidence on the issue is mixed the authors review what little is known about the use of incentives in low-income populations. The little available evidence suggests, again, that incentives are effective in this population as well. The authors conclude with a number of recommendations on the use of incentives, including a recommendation that payments to convert initial refusals to interviews be made sparingly.
Mohadjer and Choudhry provide an exposition of methods for adjusting for missing data after the fact that is, after the data have been collected. Their paper focuses on traditional weighting methods for such adjustment and includes methods for adjustment for noncoverage of the population as well as nonresponse to the survey. The authors present basic weighting methods and give examples of how variables are used to construct weights. They also discuss the effect of using weights derived from the survey sample versus weights obtained from outside data sets on the population as a whole. For population-based weights, they discuss issues of poststratification and raking that arise. Finally, they provide a brief discussion of the bias-variance tradeoff in designing weights, which is intrinsic to the nature of weights.
Measurement error is discussed in the paper by Mathiowetz, Brown, and Bound. The paper first lists the sources of measurement error in the survey process, which include the questionnaire itself; the respondent; the interviewer; and the conditions of the survey (interviewer training, mode, frequency of measurement, etc.). The authors then review issues relating to the cognitive aspects of measurement error and provide an extended discussion of the problem of questions requiring autobiographical memory. Other topics discussed in the paper include the issue of social desirability of a particular response; errors in response to sensitive questions; and errors in survey reports of earnings and income. A number of existing studies of measurement error are reviewed, but none are focused on welfare or low-income populations per se or on populations with unstable income and employment streams. The authors point out how earnings reports need to be based on salient events and give examples in which such salience is absent. A detailed review is then provided of what is known about measurement error in reports of transfer program income, child support income, hours of work, and unemployment histories. Finally, the authors list a number of issues that should be addressed that can help reduce measurement error, including proper attention by cognitive experts to comprehension of the question by respondents, care for the process of retrieval when writing questions, the use of calendars and landmark events, and a number of other questionnaire design topics. Methods for asking socially sensitive questions also are discussed.
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