Studies of Welfare Populations: Data Collection and Research Issues. References

06/01/2002

Acs, G., and P. Loprest
2001 Initial Synthesis Report of the Findings from ASPE's "Leavers" Grants. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Brauner, S., and P. Loprest
1999 Where Are They Now? What States' Studies of Welfare Leavers Tell Us. Working Paper A-32. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Cancian, M., R. Haveman, T. Kaplan, and B. Wolfe
1999 Post-Exit Earnings and Benefit Receipt Among Those Who Left AFDC in Wisconsin. Special Report #75. Madison: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin.
Cancian, M., R. Haveman, D. Meyer, and B. Wolfe
2000 Before and After TANF: The Economic Well-Being of Women Leaving Welfare. Special Report #77. Madison: Institute for Research on Poverty, University of Wisconsin.
Danziger, S.
2000 Approaching the Limit: Early Lessons from Welfare Reform. Unpublished paper presented at the conference on Rural Dimensions of Welfare Reform, Joint Center on Poverty Research, Washington, DC, May 4-5.
Ellwood, D.
1986 Targeting the "Would-Be" Long-Term Recipient: Who Should Be Served? Princeton, NJ: Mathematica Policy Research.
Ellwood, D., and M.J. Bane
1994 Understanding welfare dynamics. In Welfare Realities: From Rhetoric to Reform, M.J. Bane and D. Ellwood, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Gottschalk, P., and R. Moffitt
1994a Welfare dependence: Concepts, measures, and trends. American Economic Review 84:38-42.
1994b The growth of earnings instability in the U.S. labor market. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 2:217-254.
Loprest, P., and S. Zedlewski
1999 Current and Former Welfare Recipients: How Do They Differ? DP 99-17. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
Moffitt, R., and J. Roff
2000 The Diversity of Welfare Leavers. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University.
Moffitt, R., and D. Stevens
2001 Changing Caseloads: Macro and Micro Composition. Economic Policy Review 7:37-51.
Oellerich, D.
2001 Welfare Reform: Program Entrants and Recipients. Unpublished paper. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Stevens, D.
2000 Welfare, Employment and Earnings: Memorandum prepared for the Panel on Data and Methods for Measuring the Effects of Changes in Social Programs, Committee on National Statistics. University of Baltimore, MD.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
2000 Indicators of Welfare Dependence: Annual Report to Congress. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
Zedlewski, S., and D. Alderson
2001 Do Families on Welfare in the Post-TANF Era Differ from Their Pre-TANF Counterparts? WP 01-03. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
TABLE 14-A1
Distribution of Total-Time-On in Months (T) (percent distribution)
    Ever On
  No. Spells (N)
All All 1 2 3
0 80.8 - - - -
1-6 4.0 18.6 32.1 9.1 2.0
7-12 2.7 14.0 20.1 12.1 4.1
13-18 1.4 7.2 7.2 8.5 2.0
19-24 1.5 8.0 9.2 5.5 10.2
25-36 2.1 10.7 8.8 11.5 22.4
37-48 1.3 6.6 5.6 5.5 12.2
49-60 1.6 8.2 4.0 11.5 12.2
61-72 1.6 8.4 2.4 10.9 12.2
73-84 0.8 4.1 1.2 4.9 10.2
85-96 1.0 5.1 2.0 8.5 6.1
97+ 2.0 9.0 7.6 12.0 6.1
Mean 7.6 39.2 27.2 48.3 50.7
Median 0 28.0 12.0 47.0 47.0
Notes: Number of observations = 2,763 (all), 514 (ever on).
Maximum number of months = 120.
TABLE 14-A2
Distribution of Number of Spells (N) (percent distribution)
  All Ever On
0 81.4 -
1 9.0 48.4
2 6.0 32.0
3 1.8 9.5
4 1.2 6.4
5 0.4 2.1
6 0.1 0.1
7 0.1 0.0
8+ 0.3 0.0
Mean 0.4 1.9
Median 0 2.0
TABLE 14-A3
Distribution of Average Spell Lengths, in Months (L) (percent distribution)
    No. of Spells
All Ever On 1 2 3
1-6 25.5 32.1 21.2 12.2
7-12 19.7 19.7 13.9 28.6
13-18 11.9 7.2 11.5 16.3
19-24 9.5 9.2 5.5 20.4
25-30 6.8 2.4 11.5 14.3
31-36 7.0 2.4 10.9 5.6
37-48 7.4 5.6 13.3 5.3
49-60 5.8 4.0 12.1 0
61-84 1.8 3.6 0 0
85+ 4.7 9.6 0 0
Mean 23.8 27.2 24.1 16.8
Median 14.9 12.0 23.5 15.7
TABLE 14-A4
Distribution of Total-Time-On and Spell Lengths Among Long-termers, Short-termers, and Cyclers
  Definition 1 Definition 2 Definition 3  
Long- termer Short- termer Long- termer Short- termer Long- termer Short- termer Cycler
Total-Time-On:
1-6 - 80.5 - 50.3 - 42.2 1.0
7-12 16.6 17.0 - 36.5 - 36.7 3.0
13-18 9.8 2.5 8.0 7.4 - 14.2 5.0
19-24 10.8 - 10.2 4.8 12.1 4.0 9.0
25-36 13.9 - 17.3 1.1 11.6 8.0 14.0
37-48 7.8 - 10.2 - 11.6 - 11.0
49-60 9.0 - 12.9 - 15.3 - 13.0
61-72 8.1 - 11.7 - 12.7 - 19.0
73-84 3.7 - 4.9 - 5.8 - 10.7
85-96 6.4 - 8.4 - 10.1 - 7.0
97+ 13.1 - 17.3 - 20.6 - 8.0
Mean 47.9 4.8 58.8 8.0 65.5 10.5 54.5
Median 34.2 4.0 52.0 6.0 60.0 8.0 56.5
Spell Length:
Mean 34.9 3.5 42.7 6.1 47.9 7.6 14.9
Median 26.5 3.5 35.0 5.5 38.0 6.0 13.5

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