The fundamental objective of the design of any survey sample is to produce a survey data set, that, for a given cost of data collection, will produce statistics that are nearly unbiased and sufficiently precise to satisfy the goals of the expected analyses of the data. In general, the goal is to keep the mean square error (MSE) of the primary statistics of interest as low as possible. The MSE of a survey estimate is
MSE = Variance + (Bias)2 . 
The purpose of the weighting adjustments discussed in this paper is to reduce the bias associated with noncoverage and nonresponse in surveys. Thus, the application of weighting adjustments usually results in lower bias in the associated survey statistics, but at the same time adjustments may result in some increases in variances of the survey estimates.
The increases in variance result from the added variability in the sampling weights due to nonresponse and noncoverage adjustments. Thus, the analysts who create the weighting adjustment factors need to pay careful attention to the variability in the sampling weights caused by these adjustments. The variability in weights will reduce the precision of the estimates. Thus, a tradeoff should be made between variance and bias to keep the MSE as low as possible. However, there is no exact rule for this tradeoff because the amount of bias is unknown.
In general, weighting class adjustments frequently result in increases in the variance of survey estimates when (1) many weighting classes are created with a few respondents in each class, and (2) some weighting classes have very large adjustment factors (possibly due to much higher nonresponse or noncoverage rates in these classes). To avoid such situations, survey statisticians commonly limit the number of weighting classes created during the adjustment process. In general, although exact rules do not exist for minimum sample sizes or adjustment factors for adjustment cells, statisticians usually avoid cells with fewer than 20 or 30 sample cases or adjustment factors larger than 1.5 to 2. Refer to Kalton and Kasprzyk (1986) for more information on this topic.
Occasionally, the procedures used to create the weights may result in a few cases with extremely large weights. Extreme weights can seriously inflate the variance of survey estimates. ''Weight trimming" procedures are commonly used to reduce the impact of such large weights on the estimates produced from the sample.
Weight trimming refers to the process of adjusting a few extreme weights to reduce their impact on the weighted estimates (i.e., increase in the variances of the estimates). Trimming introduces a bias in the estimates; however, most statisticians believe that the resulting reduction in variance decreases the MSE. The inspection method, described in Potter (1988, 1990), is a common trimming method used in many surveys. This method involves the inspection of the distribution of weights in the sample. Based on this inspection, outlier weights are truncated at an acceptable level (the acceptable level is derived based on a tradeoff between bias and variance). The truncated weights then are redistributed so that the total weighted counts still match the weighted total before weight trimming.
Analysts should pay attention to the variability of the weights when working with survey data, even though all measures (such as limits on adjustment cell sizes, and weight trimming) may have been taken to keep the variability of weights in moderation. Analysts should keep in mind that large variable values in conjunction with large weights may result in extremely influential observations, that is, observations that dominate the analysis.
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