Strengthening Head Start: What the Evidence Shows. Endnotes

06/01/2003

(1) Head Start Act, 1998 reauthorization.

(2) Denton, K. & West, J., Childrens Reading and Mathematics Achievement in Kindergarten and First Grade, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, March 2002.

(3) The 1994 reauthorization of the Head Start Act established a new Early Head Start program for low-income families with infants and toddlers ages 0-3.

(4) Head Start FACES: Longitudinal Findings on Program Performance  Third Progress Report (January 2001). Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/core/ongoing_research/faces/faces_pubs_reports.html)

Head Start FACES 2000: A Whole-Child Perspective on Program Performance (May 2003). Administration for Children and Families, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/core/ongoing_research/faces/srcd2003/2003_srcd_faces_intro.pdf)

The primary source of information about the national performance of Head Start is the Head Start Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES), a nonexperimental study conducted by the Administration for Children and Families Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Data on the outcomes for children and families served by Head Start are collected. Direct assessments of childrens performance are obtained at the beginning and end of the Head Start year and at the end of kindergarten. In 1997, the FACES design included a nationally representative sample of 3,200 children and their families in 40 programs across the nation. The FACES 2000 sample includes 2,800 children and their families in 43 programs.

FACES data can be used to track the performance of successive cohorts of Head Start children, document changes in childrens performance across time, and determine how well Head Start children are progressing relative to national norms. It is important to realize that FACES cannot give conclusive evidence about Head Start effectiveness because the study design does not include a comparison group of children who did not attend Head Start.

(5) Technical note on norms, standard scores, and percentiles: With the exception of the social skills measures in the FACES battery, the measures referred to in this report have been normed. Normed means that the average level of performance has been obtained through testing large and diverse numbers of children for whom the test was developed. Two types of scores are obtained: standard scores and percentile scores. One use of standard scores is to put scores from different assessments on the same scale in order to compare childrens performance from fall to spring or across different studies. Typically, the average for standard scores is set at 100. In other words, the average child would have a score of 100. Percentile scores are derived from standard scores in order to compare childrens performance to other children using a scale from 0 to 100, with 50 being the average. Percentile scores show how children are faring relative to the large and diverse group of children that were tested in order to establish norms for the assessment.

(6) Head Start sites that have implemented carefully designed programs that focus on school readiness have shown significant gains for children.

(7) Note that the data in Figures 1 and 2 do not include those children who werent proficient in English on entry into Head Start. The inclusion of those children, who represent a substantial proportion of children attending HS, would significantly lower the mean percentile scores because they score substantially lower than English proficient children.

(8) This finding should be interpreted with caution because it may not show actual change for children with lower levels of knowledge. A statistical artifact known as "regression to the mean" may account for the result: Extreme scores obtained on one or two testings tend to become less extreme with repeated testing. There are patterns in the data that argue against this alternative explanation; however, it has not been ruled out. Regression to the mean may also account for the tendency for children in the top quartile of their class to show losses on some measures.

(9) Currently there are no national norms on the number of letters of the alphabet the typical 4-year-old can name.

(10) Zill, N. & West, J., Entering Kindergarten: Findings from the Condition of Education, 2000. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, March 2001.

(11) This finding should be interpreted with caution because it may not show actual change for children with lower levels of knowledge. A statistical artifact known as "regression to the mean" may account for the result: Extreme scores obtained on one or two testings tend to become less extreme with repeated testing. There are patterns in the data that argue against this alternative explanation; however, it has not been ruled out. Regression to the mean may also account for the tendency for children in the top quartile of their class to show losses on some measures.

(12) Measures used to assess childrens social skills in both the 1997 and 2000 FACES studies have not been normed using a different, more diverse population. Therefore, the performance of Head Start children on these measures cannot be compared to the average performer, as can be done with the language, pre-reading, and pre-mathematics measures presented in Figures 1 and 2.

(13) West, J., Denton, K. & Reaney, L.M., The Kindergarten Year: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, December 2000. These data are directly comparable because children who attended Head Start in the 1997-1998 year were assessed using measures from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

(14) Teacher rating measures can be influenced by factors other than childrens actual behavior.

(15) The Head Start Quality Research Consortium, the Interagency Early Childhood Research Initiative, and other research groups are conducting this work.

(16) The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort follows a nationally representative sample of children from kindergarten entry through fifth grade. These data include only those children who completed assessments in English. Approximately 19% of Asian children and 30% of Hispanic children attending kindergarten for the first time were not assessed in English. The sample includes children with disabilities if they could hear the questions, see the testing materials and respond orally or by pointing.

(17) Zill, N. & West, J., Entering Kindergarten: Findings from the Condition of Education, 2000. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, March 2001.

The reading assessment consisted of the following (ordered from more basic to more advanced knowledge and skills): (1) identifying uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet, (2) associating letters with sounds at the beginning of words, (3) associating letters with sounds at the end of words, (4) recognizing common words by sight, and (5) reading words in context.

The mathematics assessment consisted of the following (ordered from more basic to more advanced knowledge and skills): (1) identifying some one-digit numerals, recognizing geometric shapes, and one-to-one counting of up to 10 objects, (2) reading all single-digit numerals, counting beyond 10, recognizing a sequence of patterns, and using nonstandard units of length to compare objects, (3) reading 2 digit numerals, recognizing the next number in a sequence, identifying the ordinal position of an object, and solving a simple word problem, (4) solving simple addition and subtraction problems, and (5) solving simple multiplication and division problems and recognizing more complex number patterns.

(18) Zill, N. & West, J., Entering Kindergarten: Findings from the Condition of Education, 2000. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, March 2001.

(19) West, J., Denton, K., & Germino-Hausken, E., Americas Kindergartners, National Center for Education Statistics, February 2000.

(20) West, J., Denton, K. & Reaney, L.M., The Kindergarten Year: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, December 2000.

(21) National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. see also http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/

The Nations Report Card: Mathematics 2000. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, August 2001.

The Nations Report Card: Reading 2000. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, April 2001.

(22) Reading scores for 4th graders and mathematics scores for 4th and 12th graders are based on 2000 data. Reading scores for 12th graders and writing scores for 4th and 12th graders are based on 1998 data, the last year for which data are available. The only appropriate comparisons for the data presented involve comparisons within grade and within a single area of competency. It is not appropriate to compare scores across grades because the children in different grades differed in unknown ways that were not controlled in the analyses. It is not appropriate to compare performance within a grade across different areas of competency because the scores are derived from different scales of measurement. Percentages do not add to 100 because information about eligibility for the school lunch program was not available for a portion of students. The achievement levels of basic, proficient, and advanced are authorized by the NAEP legislation and adopted by the National Assessment Governing Board.

(23) See also the conclusions of Lee and Burkam, 2002, concerning the achievement gap in reading and mathematics for poor students at kindergarten entry based on their independent analysis of the data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.

(24) National Governors Association Policy Position HR-21. Child Care and Early Education Policy. http://www.nga.org/nga/legislativeUpdate/policyPositionDetailPrint/1,1390,540,00.html

(25) Quality Counts 2002. Education Week, No. 17, January 10, 2002.

(26) U.S. General Accounting Office, Early Education and Care: Overlap Indicates Need to Assess Cross-Cutting Programs, 2000.

(27) U.S. General Accounting Office, Education and Care: Early Childhood Programs and Services for Low-Income Families, 2000.

(28) The Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), State Initiatives to Promote Early Learning: Next Steps in Coordinating Subsidized Child Care, Head Start, and State Pre-kindergarten, Policy brief, April 2001.

(29) Denton, K. & West, J., Childrens Reading and Mathematics Achievement in Kindergarten and First Grade, National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education, March 2002.

(30) Early Childhood Education and School Readiness: Conceptual Models, Constructs, and Measures, Workshop Summary. See also http://www.nichd.nih.gov/crmc/cdb/p_learning.htm. Workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Administration for Children, Youth and Families, and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, July 17-18, 2002.

(31) Storch & Whitehurst, 2002.

Whitehurst & Lonigan, 2001.

Whitehurst & Lonigan, 1998.

(32) Roth, Speece, & Cooper, 2002.

Gianvecchio & French, 2002.

Olofsson & Niedersoe, 1999.

Storch & Whitehurst, 2002.

Blankman, Teglasi, & Lawser, 2002.

Snow, Cancino, Gonzalez, & Schriberg, 1989.

Sulzby, 1985.

Olofsson & Niedersoe, 1999.

Bohannon, Warren-Leubecker, & Hepler, 1984.

Elster. 1994.

Nation & Snowling, 2000.

Rubin, Patterson & Kantor, 1991.

Worthy, 1996.

Bender & Golden, 1988.

Biemiller, Shany, Inglish, & Meichernbaum, 1998.

(33) Clements and Conference Working Group, in press. This book is based on the Conference on Early Math Standards, which was supported in part by the National Science Foundation. See also http://www.gse.buffalo.edu/org/conference/.

(34) Huffman, Mehlinger & Kerivan, 2000. For a review of this research, see the Childrens Mental Health Foundations and Agencies Network (FAN) report, A Good Beginning: Sending Americas Children to School with the Social and Emotional Competence to Succeed, http://www.nimh.nih.gov/childhp/monograph.pdf.

(35) Data on the effects of Head Start on child outcomes is limited in amount and quality and direct comparisons of Head Start and other early childhood interventions and programs have not been made. The data that are available suggest the comprehensive, high quality, smaller scale, early childhood programs have had greater and more sustained effects on childrens outcomes. For Head Start reviews, see McKey, Condelli, Ganson, Barrett, McConkey, & Plantz, 1985 and Currie & Thomas, 1995. See Barnett & Boocock (1998) for another review of data on Head Start and other early childhood programs.

(36) Reynolds, 2000.

(37) Reynolds, 2000.

(38) Reynolds, 2000.

(39) Reynolds, Temple, Robertson & Mann, 2001.

(40) Reynolds, Temple, Robertson & Mann, 2001.

(41) Reynolds, Temple, Robertson & Mann, 2001.

(42) Reynolds, Temple, Roberstson & Mann, 2002.

(43) Ramey, C. T., Campbell, F. A., Burchinal, M., Skinner, M. L., Gardner, D. M., & Ramey, S. L. (2000). Persistent effects of early intervention on high-risk children and their mothers. Applied Developmental Science, 4, 2-14. In addition to presenting results of child testing, this article presents findings demonstrating the benefits of the availability of high-quality, consistent child care for the mothers of children in the Abecedarian study.

Campbell, F. A., Ramey, C. T., Pungello, E. P., Sparling, J., & Miller-Johnson, S. (in press). Early Childhood Education: Young Adult Outcomes from the Abecedarian Project. Applied Developmental Science.

Frank Porter Graham website, http://www.fpg.unc.edu; Ramey, Campbell, Burchinal, Skinner, Gardner, & Ramey, 2000; Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., Miller-Johnson, S., Burchinal, M., & Ramey, C. T. (in press). The Development of Cognitive and Academic Abilities: Growth Curves from an Early Childhood Educational Experiment. Developmental Psychology. This article is the first that provides detailed findings concerning the age-21 follow-up of the sample by examining the longitudinal trajectories of the participants cognitive and academic development through age 21. This research was funded by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the U.S. Department of Education, and private funders.

(44) Schweinhart, Barnes, & Weikart, 1993.

(45) Barnett, 1996

(46) Landry, S.H., Swank, P.R., Smith, K.E., & Gunnewig, S.B., paper submitted for publication. Enhancing cognitive readiness for preschool children: Bringing a professional development model to scale. University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Department of Pediatrics.

(47) The title I program provides funds to Americas most needy public schools, and is authorized under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. Title I preschool programs help prepare children for school in high poverty communities.

(48) Assel, M.A., Landry, S.H., Kerschen, L., Swank, P.R., Hebert, H.M., Gunnewig, S., paper submitted for publication. An evaluation of a model pre-kindergarten program addressing language and literacy: The effects of quality professional development. The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, Division of Developmental Pediatrics.

(49) Quality Counts 2002. Education Week, No. 17, January 10, 2002

(50) State of Colorado General Assembly, HB02-1297, School readiness child care pilots, signed into law June 7, 2002.

(51) Gilliam 2000, 2001.

(52) Fuetsch, M., State officials criticize Bush proposal for Head Start, from www.delawareonline.com a service of The NewsJournal, 22 April 2003.

Investing in Better Outcomes: The Delaware Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, University of Delaware Center for Disability Studies, April 2002.

(53) The Center for Law and Social Policy (CLASP), State Initiatives to Promote Early Learning: Next Steps in Coordinating Subsidized Child Care, Head Start, and State Pre-kindergarten, Policy brief, April 2001.

(54) North Carolinas Early Care and Education System: Report to the North Carolina General Assembly, January 2003.

(55) Quality Counts 2002. Education Week, No. 17, January 10, 2002, and Ohio state website http://www.state.oh.us/.

(56) Texas Instruments Learning by Leaps and Bounds. http://www.texasinstruments.com/corp/docs/company/citizen/foundation/leapsbounds/overview.shtml (Accessed 2 June 2003)

(57) Learning by Leaps and Bounds: Technical Report presented at Head Start 3rd National Research Conference, 1996. These are results of a self-study: an independent evaluation has not been conducted.

(58) Landry, S. H., Swank, P. R., Smith, K. E., & Gunnewig, S. B. (paper submitted for publication). Enhancing cognitive readiness for preschool children: Bringing a professional development model to scale. University of Texas-Houston Medical School, Department of Pediatrics.

(59) ECE (Early Childhood Education), Early Education Department, Denver Public Schools. http://earlyeducation.dpsk12.org/stories/storyReader$7 (Accessed 13 May 2003).

Goals and Mission, Early Education Department, Denver Public Schools. See also http://earlyeducation.dpsk12.org/stories/storyReader$12 (Accessed 13 May 2003)

Denver Head Start "Great Kids" Web Site http://www.denvergov.org/dephome.asp?depid=1220 (Accessed 13 May 2003).

(60) Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, "Enhancing the Well-Being of Young Children and Families in the Context of Welfare Reform: Lessons from Early Childhood, TANF, and Family Support programs." June 1999

(61) Early Education and Child Care. Independence, MO, School District Web site. http://www.indep.k12.mo.us/District/DistrictProgramsServices.asp (Accessed 13 May 2003)

Schools Home. Independence, MO, School District Web site. http://www.indep.k12.mo.us/Schools/SchoolsIndex.asp (Accessed 13 May 2003)

(62) Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools. http://www.cms.k12.nc.us/programs/brightbeginnings/brightbeginnings.asp (Accessed 29 May 2003)

Bucci, A. F. Using Title I and local funds to build quality preschool programs in Charlotte-Mecklenburg: A Bright Beginning. Presentation to the conference of the Ensuring Student Success Through Collaboration Network, Louisville, KY, September, 1999. http://www.ccsso.org/initiatives.html (Accessed 29 May 2003)

(63) U.S. General Accounting Office, Education and Care: Early Childhood Programs and Services for Low-Income Families, 2002.

(64) Gilliam and Zigler, 2001.

(65) Xiange & Schweinhart, 2002.

(66) Henderson, L.W., Basile, K.C., & Henry, G.T. Pre-kindergarten longitudinal study 1997-1998 school year: Annual Report. Prepared by the Applied Research Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University for the Georgia Office of School Readiness, 1999.

(67) Henry, G.T., Gordon, C.S., Mashburn, A., & Ponder, B.D., Pre-K Longitudinal Study: Findings from the 1999-2000 School Year. Prepared by the Applied Research Center, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University for the Georgia Office of School Readiness, 2001.

(68) Ripple, Gilliam, Chanana, and Zigler, 1999.

(69) Ripple, Gilliam, Chanana, and Zigler, 1999.

(70) Quality Counts 2002, Education Week, No. 17, January 10, 2002.

 

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