Status of Research on the Outcomes of Welfare Reform, 2000. Endnotes


1. In FY 1999, an additional $837,000 was awarded for continuations and extensions of several of the FY 1998 projects. Also funded in FY 1999 were leavers studies in Iowa, Texas, and Contra Costa County, California, as well as several applicant/diversion studies.

2. Studies with administrative data findings that are included in this summary are from Arizona, the District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Missouri, New York, Washington, Wisconsin, Cuyahoga County, OH, Los Angeles County, CA, and San Mateo County, CA. Links to most of the reports can be found at <>.

3. Survey data included in the summary are from Arizona, Illinois, Missouri, and Washington.

4. Cross-state comparisons are affected by a variety of factors, ranging from state sanction policies, maximum benefit levels and earnings disregard policies, to survey sample sizes, time of interview and response rates. They are also affected by the underlying economic, social and demographic conditions of the study sites. In addition, since survey findings reported here are from only four sites, they should not be presumed to be representative of the experiences of welfare leavers across the country. Differences in survey findings are also affected by differences in the questionnaires. See < for information about comparing survey instruments.

5. The findings reported here and the accompanying tables are taken from a paper by prepared by ASPE staff, "A Cross-State Examination of Families Leaving Welfare: Findings from the ASPE-Funded Leavers Studies," which was presented at the 40th Annual Workshop of the National Association for Welfare Research and Statistics (NAWRS) in August 2000.

6. Since UI records are based on quarterly earnings, reflecting any covered employment during that quarter. Individuals do not need to be employed in every month of the quarter for an earnings record to be generated.

7. The UI system collects data on aggregate quarterly earnings, without providing underlying information about actual wages, hours worked, or months worked in a quarter. Therefore, the data do not permit us to determine whether increased earnings are due to wage rate increases or increased hours of work. In addition, it should be noted that, since leavers without earnings in the quarter are excluded when calculating mean earnings, the earnings increases could also be due to low earners dropping out of the labor market.