Status Report on Research on the Outcomes of Welfare Reform, 2001. Endnotes


1.  Findings from South Carolina' s study of welfare leavers have been incorporated with the Findings from ASPE-Funded Leavers Studies (Grants to States and Localities to Study Welfare Outcomes), which are summarized in Chapter II and presented in more detail in Appendix B.

2.  As noted in Chapter II, the 1998 grants were awarded to ten states and three large counties or consortia of counties (Arizona, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin; and Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Los Angeles County, California, and San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Santa Clara Counties, California). Separate but comparable studies were also funded in Iowa (with FY 1999 funding) and South Carolina (in FY 1998 and 2000, as part of a longer-term project) resulting in a total of 15 studies with findings on former recipients as of spring 2001. (Findings from all 15 studies, including Iowa and South Carolina, are highlighted in Chapter II and detailed in Appendix B.)

3.  Findings presented here are based on an Initial Synthesis Report of the Findings From ASPE' s "Leavers" Grants (prepared by the Urban Institute and available at <>;  "A Cross-State Examination of Families Leaving Welfare: Findings from the ASPE-Funded Leavers Studies," prepared by ASPE staff and available at <>; and ASPE staff analyses of reports submitted between November 2000 and March 2001.

4.  Diversion programs include formal efforts to address the immediate needs of families seeking cash assistance in ways that avoid enrolling these families in TANF. Examples of formal diversion programs include lump sum payment programs, mandatory applicant job search programs and the exploration of alternative means of support.

5.  Findings from state diversion studies have just begun to become available. As studies are completed and reports finalized, ASPE plans to summarize and synthesize the information across studies as appropriate, similar to our syntheses of findings from leavers studies.