1. Grants were awarded in FY 1998 to ten states and three large counties or consortia of counties (Arizona, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts, Missouri, New York, Washington, and Wisconsin; and Cuyahoga County, Ohio, Los Angeles County, California, and San Mateo, Santa Cruz, and Santa Clara Counties, California). Separate but comparable studies were also funded in Iowa (with FY 1999 funding) and South Carolina (in FY 1998 and 2000, as part of a longer-term project) resulting in a total of 15 studies with findings on former recipients as of spring 2001.
3. Dates in parentheses following the title of each project identify the Fiscal Year(s) in which the study was funded.
4. In May 1995, in a report (Measuring Poverty: A New Approach) responding to a 1990 Congressional request, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Panel on Poverty and Family Assistance proposed a new approach for developing an official poverty measure for the United States, although it did not propose a specific set of dollar figures. The panel argued that the current poverty measure has weaknesses both in the implementation of the threshold concept and in the definition of family resources; that changing social and economic conditions over the last three decades have made these weaknesses more obvious and more consequential; and that, as a result, the current measure does not accurately reflect differences in poverty across populations and across time.