The widespread use of the term assisted living and the considerable state variability in its definition continues to fuel debate about what assisted living is and should be, how it should be regulated, particularly as the number of residents with higher levels of need increases, and whether facilities that do not support key assisted living principles should use the term.
States historically have licensed two general types of residential care: (1) adult foster care or family care, which typically serves five or fewer residents in a provider's home; and (2) group residential care that typically serves six or more residents in a range of settings (from large residential homes to settings that look like commercial apartment buildings or nursing homes). States have used many names for these larger group residential care settings, including: board and care homes, rest homes, adult care home, domiciliary care homes, personal care homes, community-based residential facilities, and assisted living. Until recently, the most frequently used term was board and care, though today all types of group residential care are generally referred to as assisted living.
The physical character of a substantial portion of older group residential care facilities is quite institutional, with two to four persons sharing a bedroom, and as many as eight to ten residents sharing a bathroom. Concerned about the institutional character of these settings, policymakers in Oregon--and gradually in other states--developed a new licensing category called assisted living. What was new and desirable about assisted living was that it offered residents what traditional board and care facilities did not--a philosophy of care that emphasized privacy and the ability to have greater control over daily activities such as sleeping, eating, and bathing.
Consumer preference for the new assisted living model of residential care led providers to market all types of residential care facilities as "assisted living"--whether or not they provided private units or operated with a service philosophy that assures resident autonomy. Forty-one states and the District of Columbia now use the term assisted living in their residential care regulations. In some states, assisted living is a specific model with a consumer-centered service philosophy, private apartments or units, and a broad array of services which support aging-in-place. In others states, residential care licensing categories have been consolidated under a new general set of "assisted living" rules that might cover the new model of assisted living, as well as board and care, multi-unit elderly housing, congregate housing and sometimes even adult family or foster care (e.g., Maine, Maryland, and North Carolina).
Assisted living may be a licensed setting in which services are delivered or a licensed agency that delivers services in a range of settings. Four states (Connecticut, Maine, Minnesota, and New Jersey) describe assisted living services that may be provided in two or more settings. Connecticut and Minnesota see assisted living as a service, and license the service provider (which may be a separate entity from the organization that owns or operates the building). Other states see assisted living as a building in which supportive and health related services are provided. The operator of the building is licensed, and services may be provided by the operator's staff or contracted to an outside agency. See ">Box 1-1 for a more detailed description of state's licensing and regulatory approaches.
BOX 1-1. State Licensing and Regulatory Approaches
Institutional Model. This model has minimum building and unit requirements; typically, multiple occupancy bedrooms without attached baths, and shared toilets, lavatories, and tub/shower areas. Generally, states permit these facilities to serve people who need assistance with activities of daily living (ADLs). But they either do not allow nursing home eligible residents to be admitted or do not allow facilities to provide nursing services. Historically, this model did not allow residents who met the criteria for placement in a nursing home to be served. However, as residents have aged in place, some states have made their rules more flexible to allow a higher level of service. For example, some states allow skilled nursing services to be provided for limited periods by a certified home health agency. North Carolina is one of the states that using this approach.
Housing and Services Model. This model licenses or certifies facilities to provide a broad range of long-term care services in apartment settings to persons with varying service needs, some of whom may be nursing home eligible. The state allows providers to offer relatively high levels of care, although licensed facilities may set their own admission/retention polices within state parameters and may choose to limit the acuity of its residents. Depending on the state, some or all of the needs met in a nursing home may also be met in residential care settings. By creating a separate licensing category for this model and retaining other categories, states distinguish these facilities from board and care facilities. Oregon is one of the states using this approach.
Service Model. This model licenses the service provider, whether it is the residence itself or an outside agency, and allows existing building codes and requirements--rather than new licensing standards--to address the housing structure. This model simplifies the regulatory environment by focusing on the services delivered rather than the architecture. Approaches for regulating services may also specify the type of buildings, apartment or living space that can qualify as assisted living. Minnesota is one of the states using this approach.
Umbrella Model. This model uses one set of regulations to cover two or more types of housing and services arrangements: residential care facilities, congregate housing, multi-unit or conventional elderly housing, adult family care, and assisted living. Maine is one of the states using this approach.
Multiple Levels of Licensing for a Single Category. Some states set different licensing requirements for facilities in a single category, based on the extent of the assistance the facility provides or arranges and on the type of residents served. For example, Maryland licenses facilities based on the characteristics of residents they serve. The state categorizes low-, moderate-, and high-need residents based on criteria for health and wellness, functional status, medication and treatment, behavior, psychological health, and social/recreational needs. The state may grant a limited number of waivers to facilities allowing them to serve residents who develop needs that exceed the facility's licensing level.
Some of these approaches are not mutually exclusive and may be combined.
Generic use of the term assisted living obscures the differences between types of residential care settings, and makes it difficult for consumers to determine which setting will best meet their current and future needs. A recent study of six states' use of Medicaid to fund services in residential care settings, stakeholders in every state except Oregon cited public confusion about residential care options as a major problem.3
In 2000, the U.S. Senate Aging Committee held a hearing and challenged the industry to address concerns raised in a General Accountability Office (GAO) report, one of which was the lack of a common definition of assisted living and resulting consumer confusion about this long-term care option. This and subsequent hearings led to the formation of the Assisted Living Workgroup (ALW) designed to bring together assisted living stakeholders to make recommendations to ensure high-quality care for all assisted living residents and to develop a common definition. The workgroup included over 50 organizations with a variety of interests including industry associations, professional organizations, consumer and advocacy groups, and regulators. See ">Box 1-2 for examples of various definitions of assisted living, including the one proposed by the ALW.
As states allow residential care settings to provide more health-related and nursing services, many observers believe that the key challenge in defining assisted living is to distinguish it from nursing homes while recognizing that both settings may serve some similar residents.
Federal law defines a nursing facility as an institution (or a distinct part of an institution) that is primarily engaged in providing skilled nursing care and related services for residents who require medical or nursing care, rehabilitation services for injured, disabled, or sick persons (a skilled level of care), or on a regular basis, health-related care and services to individuals who because of their mental or physical condition require care and services (above the level of room and board) which can be made available to them only through institutional facilities (the minimum level of care).4
Many individuals who qualify for Medicaid coverage of nursing home care--particularly those who do not require a skilled level of care--receive care at home from family members, home health agencies and publicly funded programs such as the Medicaid home and community-based services (HCBS) waiver program. Because HCBS programs may only serve Medicaid beneficiaries who meet each state's nursing home criteria, their emergence challenged the assumption that persons who needed nursing home care could only be served in a nursing home. It is now recognized that many nursing home eligible persons can be appropriately served in multiple settings, including residential care settings.
BOX 1-2. Examples of Definitions of Assisted Living
Assisted Living Workgroup*
Assisted living is a state regulated and monitored residential long term care option. Assisted living provides or coordinates oversight and services to meet the residents' individualized scheduled needs, based on the residents' assessments and service plans and their unscheduled needs as they arise. Services that are required by state law and regulation to be provided or coordinated must include but are not limited to:
- 24-hour awake staff to provide oversight and meet scheduled and unscheduled needs
- Provision and oversight of personal care and supportive services
- Health related services (e.g., medication management services)
- Meals, housekeeping, and laundry
- Recreational activities
- Transportation and social services
These services are disclosed and agreed to in the contract between the provider and resident. Assisted living does not generally provide ongoing, 24-hour skilled nursing. It is distinguished from other residential long-term care options by the types of services that it is licensed to perform in accordance with a philosophy of service delivery that is designed to maximize individual choice, dignity, autonomy, independence, and quality of life.
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations
An assisted living residence is "a congregate residential setting that provides or coordinates personal services, 24-hour supervision and assistance (scheduled and unscheduled), activities, and health-related services. It is designed to minimize the need to move; accommodate individual residents' changing needs and preferences; maximize residents' dignity, autonomy, privacy, independence, choice and safety; and encourage family and community involvement."**
Assisted living means a building, complex or distinct part thereof, consisting of fully self-contained individual living units where six or more seniors and persons with disabilities may reside. The facility offers and coordinates a range of supportive personal services available on a 24-hour basis to meet the ADL, health services, and social needs of the residents described in these rules. A program approach is used to promote resident self-direction and participation in decisions that emphasize choice, dignity, privacy, individuality, independence and homelike surroundings." No facility in Oregon may use the term assisted living unless they are licensed.
* The ALW final report and recommendations may be found at http://www.aahsa.org/alw.htm.
** Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 2003-2005 Accreditation Manual for Assisted Living.
Because HCBS waiver programs serve some nursing home eligible persons in home and residential care settings, it is not really possible to develop mutually exclusive definitions for nursing homes and residential care, except for the provision of a skilled level of care. Doing so would severely limit states' ability to offer these residential care settings as a service alternative for nursing home eligible persons. States want to be able to serve at least some nursing home eligible individuals in more homelike residential care settings without imposing the nursing homes' regulatory structure.
Some observers believe there is perhaps too much emphasis on developing a common definition of assisted living given that all 50 states have the authority to define it how they want. Some believe that a better approach would describe assisted living in a way that recognizes the overlap of needs that can be met and the services that can be offered by both nursing homes and assisted living, yet highlights differences between them. One state regulator has suggested the following definition--"Assisted living is a facility which provides housing, meals and long-term care services in a group residential setting that is not a nursing home"--adding that specific requirements for different types of assisted living should then be spelled out in regulation. At the same time, providers need to understand what their liability is in taking a medically fragile individual and their requirements to meet a resident's needs.5
To help prospective residents understand the differences between nursing homes and different types of residential care, some states might require--as Oregon does--that facilities use standardized disclosure forms to describe their scope of service, rate structure, caregiver and nursing staff levels. Many believe that this approach will be much more helpful for consumers than a uniform definition of assisted living.
In short, individuals with health needs and impaired abilities can be served in a range of settings by a variety of service providers: home health agencies, home care agencies, adult day care, different types of residential care (adult foster care, board and care, assisted living), and nursing homes. Residential care is an important service option for people who cannot live alone and do not have informal care.
States have the responsibility for regulating residential care settings and their definitions and approaches reflect each state's unique policy environment and preferences. Consequently, development of a standard definition of assisted living is unlikely. The approach to defining and categorizing residential care for research purposes depends on the research question. One national survey grouped facilities according to the level of services and the amount of privacy they offered (high and low).6 A study comparing resident outcomes in residential care and nursing homes would need to categorize facilities according to characteristics relevant to outcomes, such as staffing levels and the provision of nursing services and oversight.
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