State Policies to Promote Marriage. Endnotes

09/01/2002

1.  The authors would like to thank the following panelists for reviewing a draft of the interim report: Nancy Duff Campbell, Kathryn Dyjak, Patrick Fagan, Susan Golonka, Ron Haskins, and Lee Posey.

2.  Arizona, Louisiana, and Utah.

3.  Arizona, Louisiana, Michigan, South Carolina, and Utah.

4.  No marriage penalty means that a state has no income tax, has a flat tax regardless of filing status, has brackets for married couples twice as wide as single filers, or allows married couples to use one return to pay taxes on separate income as if they were single.

5.  In Louisiana, the law is being evaluated under a NSF grant. The co-director is Steven Nock at the Center for Children and the Law, University of Virginia.

6.  Alabama, Alaska, California, Colorado, Kansas, Maryland, Michigan, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Washington, West Virginia.

7.  American Bar Association Network. http://www.abanet.org/publiced/lawday/community/separation.html.

8.  Arizona, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, New Hampshire, New Jersey, Texas.

9.  California, Idaho, Kansas (a second bill is still under consideration) Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia.

10.  Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Iowa, New Mexico, Tennessee, Utah, Virginia.

11.  Arkansas, Connecticut, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Texas, Vermont

12.  Alaska, Colorado, Kansas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania (second bill).

13.  See, for example, Judith Seltzer, “Father by Law: Effects of Joint Legal Custody on Nonresident Fathers’ Involvement with Children,” Demography 35(2): 135-146.

14.  States that do not have joint legal custody are Arkansas, California, New York and Washington.

15.  Source:  http://www.dads4kids.com/joint_custody_states.htm

16.  Wyoming is considering legislation that would grant immediate divorce to certain couples who craft their own divorce settlements without attorneys.

17.  Connecticut, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Washington, West Virginia.

18.  Arizona, Arkansas, Connecticut, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia.

19.  Alaska, Colorado, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Michigan, New Mexico, Pennsylvania (2 bills), Wisconsin.

20.  Georgia passed a law; Bills pending in California, Kansas, Michigan, Montana, Virginia, Washington; bills failed in Arizona and New Hampshire.

21.  California, District of Columbia, Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, New Mexico, Utah, Wisconsin

22.  Alaska, Arizona, California, Florida, Illinois, Iowa (2 bills), Maryland, Michigan (2 bills), Minnesota, New Mexico, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee.

23.  The additional fee was implemented to help finance a plan to educate divorcing parents about the effects of divorce on children. A percentage of the proceeds from the fee are also directed towards child abuse and domestic violence prevention as well as a program the offers services to families with disabled children.

24.  The Iowa bill includes both a higher fee and waiting period for those who do not take a course.

25.  Florida, Maryland, Minnesota, Oklahoma, Tennessee.

26.  Alaska, Arizona, California, Illinois, Iowa, Michigan, New Mexico, South Dakota.

27.  Arizona, California, Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Kansas, Michigan, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Utah (two initiatives), Virginia, Wisconsin.

28.  Arizona, Michigan, Oklahoma, Utah, Wisconsin.

29.  Married couples may file as individuals at tax rates that are higher than those for single persons; however, it is rarely advantageous to do so.

30.  Childless low-income workers can qualify for a small credit, but the maximum credit in 2000 ($343) was much lower than the credit available to working families with children. http://www.cbpp.org/10-18-01sfp.pdf.

31.  For more information on EITC improvements for married couples, see the Center for Budget and Policy Priorities at http://www.cbpp.org/12-27-01sfp.pdf.

32.  Colorado, District of Columbia, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Wisconsin.

33.  In the 16th state, Minnesota, the refund varies by earnings.

34.  Information on federal marriage penalties is from the Congressional Budget Office (1997). For Better or For Worse: Marriage and the Federal Income Tax. http://www.cbo.gov/showdoc.cfm?index=7&sequence=0&from=1

35.  States with no state income tax are Alaska, Florida, Nevada, New Hampshire, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wyoming. Source: Center for Budget and Policy Priorities. http://www.cbpp.org/3-1-01sfp-pr.htm

36.  Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Massachusetts, Michigan, Pennsylvania.

37.  Alabama, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Louisiana, Oregon, Utah.

38.  Colorado, Maine, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York, North Carolina, Wisconsin.

39.  Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Iowa, Kentucky, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Virginia.

40.  Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, West Virginia.

41.  Georgia, Kansas, Maryland, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina.

42.  Arizona, California, District of Columbia, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Hampshire, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and South Dakota.

43.  States that do not base eligibility on financial circumstances only are Arizona, California, District of Columbia, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Tennessee, Washington.

44.  Alabama, Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Washington, West Virginia.

45.  Arizona, Colorado, Iowa, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Texas.

46.  Minus any pass through.

47.  The term used in the Vermont statute is reunited and makes no specific reference to marriage.

48.  Arkansas, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Utah, and West Virginia.

49.  States that do not base eligibility solely on financial circumstances are:  Arkansas, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Nebraska, New Hampshire, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

50.  Arizona, California, District of Columbia, Maine, Minnesota, Montana, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, Wisconsin, Wyoming.

51.  Delaware, Hawaii, Minnesota, Missouri, Oregon, Tennessee, Vermont, Wisconsin.

52.  Alaska, California, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Rhode Island, Vermont.

53.  Oregon, Rhode Island, Washington.

54.  Although states can often provide more detailed information upon request, the data presented in this report addresses those statistics that are published regularly by the states.

55.  Information for the District of Columbia is missing.

56.  California, New Mexico.

57.  Georgia.

58.  Alaska, Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky, Maine, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Virginia.

59.  Florida, Iowa, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin.

60.  Connecticut, Montana.

61.  Indiana

62.  Alaska, Arizona, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Nevada, New Jersey, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia.

63.  Summary data includes total marriages by age and divorces by number of years married.

64.  Georgia, Hawaii, Iowa, Massachusetts, New Jersey, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont.

65.  Implementation has been postponed due to state budget issues.

66.  Susan Frankel, Prevent Child Abuse America. Correspondence with author. October 23, 2001.

67.  Alabama, Arizona, Michigan, Oklahoma, Oregon, Utah.

68.  Every state except California accepted federal abstinence education funding. Not all of them have state-level programs, but there is a high level of abstinence education activity.

69.  Florida, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, South Dakota.

70.  Alabama, Arizona, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia,.

71.  Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Oklahoma, Oregon, South Carolina, Tennessee.

72.  Alabama, Georgia, Indiana, Massachusetts, Virginia.

73.  Although funds were appropriated, the bill itself (H.B. 2115, the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Pilot Project) is currently being held in committee and has not been passed.

74.  States that do not license therapists are Delaware, District of Columbia, Montana, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, West Virginia.

75.  See American Association of Marriage and Family Therapy. http://www.aamft.org/resources/Online_Directories/boardcontacts.htm

76.  Connecticut, District of Columbia, Idaho, Pennsylvania.

77.  All states except AR, CA, NY, WA

78.  States that do not base TANF on financial circumstances only are AZ, CA, DC, GA, IN, KY, ME, MA, MS, MO, NH, ND, OK, OR, PA, SD, TN, WA.

79.  States that do not base Medicaid on financial circumstances only are AR, FL, KY, LA, ME, NE, NH, ND, OK, PA, TN, UT, WV, WI, WY.

80.  CA and NM do not report marriage statistics. GA data deemed unreliable and no longer published. Information for DC is missing.

81.  CA, IN and NM do not report divorce statistics. GA data deemed unreliable and no longer published. Information for DC is missing.

82.  States that do not regulate therapists are DE, DC, MT, NY, ND, OH, WV.

83.  States with no statewide respite programs are AK, CA, DC, FL, ME, MS, NJ, NM.