All title IV-E waiver projects are required to have independent, third-party evaluations that examine both cost and quality concerns. Some of the programs did not have waivers and did not have such evaluations underway. Most of the programs had secured contracts, usually with local schools of social work, but had not yet produced reports. Several of the states were just beginning to implement their programs and had not made arrangements for evaluations. Four states where evaluation reports are available include Arizona (Arizona Office of the Auditor General, 2000), Colorado (Mercer, 2000), Florida (Paulson et al., 2002), and Kansas (James Bell Associates, 1999).
The next section describes in some detail the various financial arrangements that states adopted to achieve their objectives, including the specific managed care strategies used, administrators’ impressions of the effects on child welfare systems, and contractors’ reports of their resulting financial status.