State Innovations in Child Welfare Financing. Endnotes


14  CWLA has updated its data through a survey in 2000 (McCullough and Schmitt, 2001). That study identified 39 initiatives in 25 states. CWLA did not estimate the national scope of initiatives in 2000.

15  States receive reimbursement for the federal share of costs only after the delivery of services. Federal title IV-E funding, which finances most foster care, cannot be used for in-home or prevention services; when a child returns home, federal reimbursement for foster care costs ceases even if the child and family continue receiving in-home services. Title IV-B, the primary federal child welfare funding source for in-home interventions, is capped, and the amount available is limited.

16  Several other states also operate IV-E waivers, but the fiscal reforms reviewed in this report were not based on those waivers.

17  A recent GAO study (U.S. GAO, 2000) showed that none of the 12 initiatives contacted were using their SACWIS to manage information on clients, services, or outcomes, although some states hoped to eventually either link their initiatives’ data with SACWIS or incorporate SACWIS into their initiatives.

18  An outcomes focus for federal agencies has been required since the passage of the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), which forced a shift away from traditional concerns such as staffing and activity levels and toward the single overriding issue of results.

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