Comment: The proposed rule limited those who could file a complaint with the Secretary to individuals. A number of commenters suggested that other persons with knowledge of a possible violation should also be able to file complaints. Examples that were provided included a mental health care provider with first hand knowledge of a health plan improperly requiring disclosure of psychotherapy notes and an occupational health nurse with knowledge that her human resources manager is improperly reviewing medical records. A few comments raised the concern that permitting any person to file a complaint lends itself to abuse and is not necessary to ensure privacy rights and that the complainant should be a person for whom there is a duty to protect health information.
Response: As discussed below, the rule defines "individual" as the person who is the subject of the individually identifiable health information. However, the covered entity may allow other persons, such as personal representatives, to exercise the rights of the individual under certain circumstances, e.g., for a deceased individual. We agree with the commenters that any person may become aware of conduct by a covered entity that is in violation of the rule. Such persons could include the covered entity's employees, business associates, patients, or accrediting, health oversight, or advocacy agencies or organizations. Many persons, such as the covered entity's employees, may, in fact, be in a better position than the "individual" to know that a violation has occurred. Another example is a state Protection and Advocacy group that may represent persons with developmental disabilities. We have decided to allow complaints from any person. The term "person" is not restricted here to human beings or natural persons, but also includes any type of association, group, or organization.
Allowing such persons to file complaints may be the only way the Secretary may learn of certain possible violations. Moreover, individuals who are the subject of the information may not be willing to file a complaint because of fear of embarrassment or retaliation. Based on our experience with various civil rights laws, such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act, that allow any person to file a complaint with the Secretary, we do not believe that this practice will result in abuse. Finally, upholding privacy protections benefits all persons who have or may be served by the covered entity as well as the general public, and not only the subject of the information.
If a complaint is received from someone who is not the subject of protected health information, the person who is the subject of this information may be concerned with the Secretary's investigation of this complaint. While we did not receive comments on this issue, we want to protect the privacy rights of this individual. This might involve the Secretary seeking to contact the individual to provide information as to how the Secretary will address individual's privacy concerns while resolving the complaint. Contacting all individuals may not be practicable in the case of allegations of systemic violations (e.g., where the allegation is that hundreds of medical records were wrongfully disclosed).