Comment: One commenter urged that the Department not permit protected health information to be disclosed to a collection agency for collecting payment on a balance due on patient accounts. The commenter noted that, at best, such a disclosure would only require the patient's and/or insured's address and phone number.
Response: We disagree. A collection agency may require additional protected health information to investigate and assess payment disputes for the covered entity. For example, the collection agency may need to know what services the covered entity rendered in order to resolve disputes about amounts due. The information necessary may vary, depending on the nature of the dispute. Therefore we do not specify the information that may be used or disclosed for collection activities. The commenter's concern may be addressed by the minimum necessary requirements in § 164.514. Under those provisions, when a covered entity determines that a collection agency only requires limited information for its activities, it must make reasonable efforts to limit disclosure to that information.
Comment: A number of commenters supported retaining the expansive definition in the proposed rule so that current methods of administering the claims payment process would not be hindered by blocking access to protected health information.
Response: We agree and retain the proposed overall approach to the definition.
Comment: Some commenters argued that the definition of "payment' should be narrowly interpreted as applying only to the individual who is the subject of the information.
Response: We agree with the commenter and modify the definition to clarify that payment activities relate to the individual to whom health care is provided.
Comment: Another group of commenters asserted that the doctor-patient relationship was already being interfered with by the current practices of managed care. For example, it was argued that the definition expanded the power of government and other third party "payors," turning them into controllers along with managed care companies. Others stated that activities provided for under the definition occur primarily to fulfill the administrative function of managed health plans and that an individual's privacy is lost when his or her individually identifiable health information is shared for administrative purposes.
Response: Activities we include in the definition of payment reflect core functions through which health care and health insurance services are funded. It would not be appropriate for a rule about health information privacy to hinder mechanisms by which health care is delivered and financed. We do not through this rule require any health care provider to disclose protected health information to governmental or other third party payors for the activities listed in the payment definition. Rather, we allow these activities to occur, subject to and consistent with the requirements of this rule.
Comment: Several commenters requested that we expand the definition to include "coordination of benefits" as a permissible activity.
Response: We agree and modify the definition accordingly.
Comment: A few commenters raised concerns that the use of "medical data processing" was too restrictive. It was suggested that a broader reference such as "health related" data processing would be more appropriate.
Response: We agree and modify the definition accordingly.
Comment: Some commenters suggested that the final rule needed to clarify that drug formulary administration activities are payment related activities.
Response: While we agree that uses and disclosures of protected health information for drug formulary administration and development are common and important activities, we believe these activities are better described as health care operations and that these activities come within that definition.
Comment: Commenters asked that the definition include calculation of prescription drug costs, drug discounts, and maximum allowable costs and copayments.
Response: Calculations of drug costs, discounts, or copayments are payment activities if performed with respect to a specific individual and are health care operations if performed in the aggregate for a group of individuals.
Comment: We were urged to specifically exclude "therapeutic substitution" from the definition.
Response: We reject this suggestion. While we understand that there are policy concerns regarding therapeutic substitution, those policy concerns are not primarily about privacy and thus are not appropriately addressed in this regulation.
Comment: A few commenters asked that patient assistance programs (PAPS) should be excluded from the definition of payment. Such programs are run by or on behalf of manufacturers and provide free or discounted medications to individuals who could not afford to purchase them. Commenters were concerned that including such activities in the definition of payment could harm these programs.
For example, a university school of pharmacy may operate an outreach program and serve as a clearinghouse for information on various pharmaceutical manufacturer PAPS. Under the program state residents can submit a simple application to the program (including medication regimen and financial information), which is reviewed by program pharmacists who study the eligibility criteria and/or directly call the manufacturer's program personnel to help evaluate eligibility for particular PAPS. The program provides written guidance to the prescribing physicians that includes a suggested approach for helping their indigent patients obtain the medications that they need and enrollment information for particular PAPS.
Response: We note that the concerns presented are not affected by definition of "payment." The application of this rule to patient assistance programs activities will depend on how the individual programs operate and are affected primarily by the definition of treatment. Each of these programs function differently, so it is not possible to state a blanket rule for whether and how the rule affects such programs.
Under the example provided, the physician who contacts the program on behalf of a patient is managing the patient's care. If the provider is also a covered entity, he or she would be permitted to make such a "treatment" disclosure of protected health information if a general consent had been obtained from the patient. Depending on the particular facts, the manufacturer, by providing the prescription drugs for an individual, could also be providing health care under this rule. Even so, however, the manufacturer may or may not be a covered entity, depending on whether or not it engages in any of the standard electronic transactions (See the definition of a covered entity). It also may be an indirect treatment provider, since it may be providing the product through another provider, not directly to the patient. In this example, the relevant disclosures of protected health information by any covered health care provider with a direct treatment relationship with the patient would be permitted subject to the general consent requirements of § 164.506.
Whether and how this rule affects the school of pharmacy is equally dependent on the specific facts. For example, if the school merely provides a patient or a physician with the name of a manufacturer and a contact phone number, it would not be functioning as a health care provider and would not be subject to the rule. However, if the school is more involved in the care of the individual, its activities could come in within the definition of "health care provider" under this rule.
Comment: Commenters pointed out that drugs may or may not be "covered" under a plan. Individuals, on the other hand, may or may not be "eligible" for benefits under a plan. The definition should incorporate both terms to clarify that determinations of both coverage and eligibility are payment activities.
Response: We agree and modify the rule to include "eligibility".
Comment: Several commenters urged that "concurrent and retrospective review" were significant utilization review activities and should be incorporated.
Response: We agree and modify the definition accordingly.
Comment: Commenters noted that the proposed rule was not clear as to whether protected health information could be used to resolve disputes over coverage, including appeals or complaints regarding quality of care.
Response: We modify the definition of payment to include resolution of payment and coverage disputes; the final definition of payment includes "the adjudication ... of health benefit claims." The other examples provided by commenters, such as arranging, conducting, or assistance with primary and appellate level review of enrollee coverage appeals, also fall within the scope of adjudication of health benefits claims. Uses and disclosures of protected health information to resolve disputes over quality of care may be made under the definition of "health care operations" (see above).
Comment: Some commenters suggested that if an activity falls within the scope of payment it should not be considered marketing. Commenters supported an approach that would bar such an activity from being construed as "marketing" even if performing that activity would result in financial gain to the covered entity.
Response: We agree that the proposed rule did not clearly define 'marketing,' leaving commenters to be concerned about whether payment activities that result in financial gain might be considered marketing. In the final rule we add a definition of marketing and clarify when certain activities that would otherwise fall within that definition can be accomplished without authorization. We believe that these changes will clarify the distinction between marketing and payment and address the concerns raised by commenters.
Comment: Commenters asserted that HHS should not include long-term care insurance within the definition of "health plan". If they are included, the commenters argued that the definition of payment must be modified to reflect the activities necessary to support the payment of long-term care insurance claims. As proposed, commenters argued that the definition of payment would not permit long term care insurers to use and disclose protected health information without authorization to perform functions that are "compatible with and directly relate to...payment" of claims submitted under long term care policies.
Response: Long-term care policies, except for nursing home fixed-indemnity policies, are defined as health plans by the statute (see definition of "health plan," above). We disagree with the assertion that the definition of payment does not permit long term care insurers to undertake these necessary activities. Processing of premium payments, claims administration, and other activities suggested for inclusion by the commenters are covered by the definition. The rule permits protected health information to be used or disclosed by a health plan to determine or fulfill its responsibility for provision of benefits under the health plan.
Comment: Some commenters argued that the definition needs to be expanded to include the functions of obtaining stop-loss and ceding reinsurance.
Response: We agree that use and disclosure of protected health information for these activities should be permitted without authorization, but have included them under health care operation rather than payment.
Comment: Commenters asked that the definition be modified to include collection of accounts receivable or outstanding accounts. Commenters raised concern that the proposed rule, without changes, might unintentionally prevent the flow of information between medical providers and debt collectors.
Response: We agree that the proposed definition of payment did not explicitly provide for "collection activities" and that this oversight might have impeded a covered entity's debt collection efforts. We modify the regulatory text to add "collection activities."
Comment: The preamble should clarify that self-insured group health and workers' compensation plans are not covered entities or business partners.
Response: The statutory definition of health plan does not include workers' compensation products. See the discussion of "health plan" under § 160.103 above.
Comment: Certain commenters explained that third party administrators usually communicate with employees through Explanation of Benefit (EOB) reports on behalf of their dependents (including those who might not be minor children). Thus, the employee might be apprized of the medical encounters of his or her dependents but not of medical diagnoses unless there is an over-riding reason, such as a child suspected of drug abuse due to multiple prescriptions. The commenters urged that the current claim processing procedures be allowed to continue.
Response: We agree. We interpret the definition of payment and, in particular the term 'claims management,' to include such disclosures of protected health information.
Comment: One private company noted that pursuant to the proposed Transactions Rule standard for payment and remittance advice, the ASC X12N 835 can be used to make a payment, send a remittance advice, or make a payment and send remittance advice by a health care payor and a health care provider, either directly or through a designated financial institution. Because a remittance advice includes diagnostic or treatment information, several private companies and a few public agencies believed that the proposed Transactions Rule conflicted with the proposed privacy rule. Two health plans requested guidance as to whether, pursuant to the ASC X12N 835 implementation guide, remittance advice information is considered "required" or "situational." They sought guidance on whether covered entities could include benefits information in payment of claims and transfer of remittance information.
One commenter asserted that if the transmission of certain protected health information were prohibited, health plans may be required to strip remittance advice information from the ASC X12N 835 when making health care payments. It recommended modifying the proposed rule to allow covered entities to provide banks or financial institutions with the data specified in any transaction set mandated under the Transactions Rule for health care claims payment.
Similarly, a private company and a state health data organization recommended broadening the scope of permissible disclosures pursuant to the banking section to include integrated claims processing information, as contained in the ASC X12N 835 and proposed for adoption in the proposed Transactions Rule; this transaction standard includes diagnostic and treatment information. The company argued that inclusion of diagnostic and treatment information in the data transmitted in claims processing was necessary for comprehensive and efficient integration in the provider's patient accounting system of data corresponding with payment that financial institutions credit to the provider's account.
A state health data organization recommended applying these rules to financial institutions that process electronic remittance advice pursuant to the Transactions Rule.
Response: The Transactions Rule was published August 17, 2000, after the issuance of the privacy proposed rule. As noted by the commenters, the ASC X12N 835 we adopted as the "Health Care Payment and Remittance Advice" standard in the Transactions Rule has two parts. They are the electronic funds transfer (EFT) and the electronic remittance advice (ERA). The EFT part is optional and is the mechanism that payors use to electronically instruct one financial institution to move money from one account to another at the same or at another financial institution. The EFT includes information about the payor, the payee, the amount, the payment method, and a reassociation trace number. Since the EFT is used to initiate the transfer of funds between the accounts of two organizations, typically a payor to a provider, it includes no individually identifiable health information, not even the names of the patients whose claims are being paid. The funds transfer information may also be transmitted manually (by check) or by a variety of other electronic means, including various formats of electronic transactions sent through a payment network, such as the Automated Clearing House (ACH) Network.
The ERA, on the other hand, contains specific information about the patients and the medical procedures for which the money is being paid and is used to update the accounts receivable system of the provider. This information is always needed to complete a standard Health Care Payment and Remittance Advice transaction, but is never needed for the funds transfer activity of the financial institution. The only information the two parts of this transaction have in common is the reassociation trace number.
Under the ASC X12N 835 standard, the ERA may be transmitted alone, directly from the health plan to the health care provider and the reassociation trace number is used by the provider to match the ERA information with a specific payment conducted in some other way (e.g., EFT or paper check). The standard also allows the EFT to be transmitted alone, directly to the financial institution that will initiate the payment. It also allows both parts to be transmitted together, even though the intended recipients of the two parts are different (the financial institution and the provider). For example, this would be done when the parties agree to use the ACH system to carry the ERA through the provider's bank to the provider when it is more efficient than sending the ERA separately through a different electronic medium.
Similarly, the ASC X12N 820 standard for premium payments has two parts, an EFT part (identical to that of the 835) and a premium data part containing identity and health information about the individuals for whom health insurance premiums are being paid.
The transmission of both parts of the standards are payment activities under this rule, and permitted subject to certain restrictions. Because a financial institution does not require the remittance advice or premium data parts to conduct funds transfers, disclosure of those parts by a covered entity to it (absent a business associate arrangement to use the information to conduct other activities) would be a violation of this rule.
We note that additional requirements may be imposed by the final Security Rule. Under the proposed Security Rule, the ACH system and similar systems would have been considered "open networks" because transmissions flow unpredictably through and become available to member institutions who are not party to any business associate agreements (in a way similar to the internet). The proposed Security Rule would require any protected health information transferred through the ACH or similar system to be encrypted.
Comment: A few commenters noted the Gramm-Leach-Bliley (GLB) Act (Pub.L. 106-102) allows financial holding companies to engage in a variety of business activities, such as insurance and securities, beyond traditional banking activities. Because the term "banking" may take on broader meaning in light of these changes, the commenter recommended modifying the proposed rule to state that disclosure of diagnostic and treatment information to banks along with payment information would constitute a violation of the rule. Specifically, the organization recommended clarifying in the final rule that the provisions included in the proposed section on banking and payment processes (proposed § 164.510(i)) govern payment processes only and that all activities of financial institutions that did not relate directly to payment processes must be conducted through business partner contracts. Furthermore, this group recommended clarifying that if financial institutions act as payors, they will be covered entities under the rule.
Response: We recognize that implementation of the GLB Act will expand significantly the scope of activities in which financial holding companies engage. However, unless a financial institution also meets the definition of a "covered entity," it cannot be a covered entity under this rule.
We agree with the commenters that disclosure of diagnostic and specific treatment information to financial institutions for many banking and funds processing purposes may not be consistent with the minimum necessary requirements of this final rule. We also agree with the commenters that financial institutions are business associates if they receive protected health information when they engage in activities other than funds processing for covered entities. For example, if a health care provider contracts with a financial institution to conduct "back office" billing and accounts receivable activities, we require the provider to enter into a business associate contract with the institution.
Comment: Two commenters expressed support for the proposed rule's approach to disclosure for banking and payment processes. On the other hand, many other commenters were opposed to disclosure of protected health information without authorization to banks. One commenter said that no financial institution should have individually identifiable health information for any reason, and it said there were technological means for separating identity from information necessary for financial transactions. Some commenters believed that implementation of the proposed rule's banking provisions could lead banks to deny loans on the basis of individuals' health information.
Response: We seek to achieve a balance between protecting patient privacy and facilitating the efficient operation of the health care system. While we agree that financial institutions should not have access to extensive information about individuals' health, we recognize that even the minimal information required for processing of payments may effectively reveal a patient's health condition; for example, the fact that a person has written a check to a provider suggests that services were rendered to the person or a family member. Requiring authorization for disclosure of protected health information to a financial institution in order to process every payment transaction in the health care system would make it difficult, if not impossible, for the health care system to operate effectively. See also discussion of section 1179 of the Act above.
Comment: Under the proposed rule, covered entities could have disclosed the following information without consent to financial institutions for the purpose of processing payments: (1) the account holder's name and address; (2) the payor or provider's name and address; (3) the amount of the charge for health services; (4) the date on which services were rendered; (5) the expiration date for the payment mechanism, if applicable (e.g., credit card expiration date); and (6) the individual's signature. The proposed rule solicited comments on whether additional data elements would be necessary to process payment transactions from patients to covered entities.
One commenter believed that it was unnecessary to include this list in the final rule, because information that could have been disclosed under the proposed minimum necessary rule would have been sufficient to process banking and payment information. Another private company said that its extensive payment systems experience indicated that we should avoid attempts to enumerate a list of information allowed to be disclosed for banking and payment processing. Furthermore, the commenter said, the proposed rule's list of information allowed to be disclosed was not sufficient to perform the range of activities necessary for the operation of modern electronic payment systems. Finally, the commenter said, inclusion of specific data elements allowed to be disclosed for banking and payment processes rule would stifle innovation in continually evolving payment systems. Thus, the commenter recommended that in the final rule, we eliminate the minimum necessary requirement for banking and payment processing and that we do not include a list of specific types of information allowed to be disclosed for banking and payment processes.
On the other hand, several other commenters supported applying the minimum necessary standard to covered entities' disclosures to financial institutions for payment processing. In addition, these groups said that because financial institutions are not covered entities under the proposed rule, they urged Congress to enact comprehensive privacy legislation to limit financial institutions' use and re-disclosure of the minimally necessary protected health information they could receive under the proposed rule. Several of these commenters said that, in light of the increased ability to manipulate data electronically, they were concerned that financial institutions could use the minimal protected health information they received for making financial decisions. For example, one of these commenters said that a financial institution could identify an individual who had paid for treatment of domestic violence injuries and subsequently could deny the individual a mortgage based on that information.
Response: We agree with the commenters who were concerned that a finite list of information could hamper systems innovation, and we eliminate the proposed list of data items.
However, we disagree with the commenters who argued that the requirement for minimum necessary disclosures not apply to disclosures to financial institution or for payment activities. They presented no persuasive reasons why these disclosures differ from others to which the standard applies, nor did they suggest alternative means of protecting individuals' privacy. Further, with elimination of the proposed list of items that may be disclosed, it will be necessary to rely on the minimum necessary disclosure requirement to ensure that disclosures for payment purposes do not include information unnecessary for that purposes. In practice, the following is the information that generally will be needed: the name and address of the individual; the name and address of the payor or provider; the amount of the charge for health services; the date on which health services were rendered; the expiration date for the payment mechanism, if applicable (i.e., credit card expiration date); the individual's signature; and relevant identification and account numbers.
Comment: One commenter said that the minimum necessary standard would be impossible to implement with respect to information provided on its standard payment claim, which, it said, was used by pharmacies for concurrent drug utilization review and that was expected to be adopted by HHS as the national pharmacy payment claim.
Two other commenters also recommended clarifying in the final rule that pharmacy benefit cards are not considered a type of "other payment card" pursuant to the rule's provisions governing payment processes. These commenters were concerned that if pharmacy benefit cards were covered by the rule's payment processing provisions, their payment claim, which they said was expected to be adopted by HHS as the national pharmacy payment claim, may have to be modified to comply with the minimum necessary standard that would have been required pursuant to proposed § 164.510(i) on banking and payment processes. One of these commenters noted that its payment claim facilitates concurrent drug utilization review, which was mandated by Congress pursuant to the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 and which creates the real-time ability for pharmacies to gain access to information that may be necessary to meet requirements of this and similar state laws. The commenter said that information on its standard payment claim may include information that could be used to provide professional pharmacy services, such as compliance, disease management, and outcomes programs. The commenter opposed restricting such information by applying the minimum necessary standard.
Response: We make an exception to the minium necessary disclosure provision of this rule for the required and situational data elements of the standard transactions adopted in the Transactions Rule, because those elements were agreed to through the ANSI-accredited consensus development process. The minimum necessary requirements do apply to optional elements in such standard transactions, because industry consensus has not resulted in precise and unambiguous situation specific language to describe their usage. This is particularly relevant to the NCPDP standards for retail pharmacy transactions referenced by these commenters, in which the current standard leaves most fields optional. For this reason, we do not accept this suggestion.
The term 'payment card' was intended to apply to a debit or credit card used to initiate payment transactions with a financial institution. We clarify that pharmacy benefit cards, as well as other health benefit cards, are used for identification of individual, plan, and benefits and do not qualify as "other payment cards."
Comment: Two commenters asked the following questions regarding the banking provisions of the proposed rule: (1) Does the proposed regulation stipulate that disclosures to banks and financial institutions can occur only once a patient has presented a check or credit card to the provider, or pursuant to a standing authorization?; and (2) Does the proposed rule ban disclosure of diagnostic or other related detailed payment information to financial institutions?
Response: We do not ban disclosure of diagnostic information to financial institutions, because some such information may be evident simply from the name of the payee (e.g., when payment is made to a substance abuse clinic). This type of disclosure, however, is permitted only when reasonably necessary for the transaction (see requirements for minimum necessary disclosure of protected health information, in § 164.502 and § 164.514).
Similarly, we do not stipulate that such disclosure may be made only once a patient has presented a check or credit card, because some covered entities hire financial institutions to perform services such as management of accounts receivables and other back office functions. In providing such services to covered entities, the financial institution will need access to protected health information. (In this situation, the disclosure will typically be made under a business associate arrangement that includes provisions for protection of the information.)
Comment: One commenter was concerned that the proposed rule's section on financial institutions, when considered in conjunction with the proposed definition of "protected health information," could have been construed as making covered entities' disclosures of consumer payment history information to consumer reporting agencies subject to the rule. It noted that covered entities' reporting of payment history information to consumer reporting agencies was not explicitly covered by the proposed rule's provisions regarding disclosure of protected health information without authorization. It was also concerned that the proposed rule's minimum necessary standard could have been interpreted to prevent covered entities and their business partners from disclosing appropriate and complete information to consumer reporting agencies. As a result, it said, consumer reporting agencies might not be able to compile complete consumer reports, thus potentially creating an inaccurate picture of a consumer's credit history that could be used to make future credit decisions about the individual.
Furthermore, this commenter said, the proposed rule could have been interpreted to apply to any information disclosed to consumer reporting agencies, thus creating the possibility for conflicts between the rule's requirements and those of the Fair Credit Reporting Act. They indicated that areas of potential overlap included: limits on subsequent disclosures; individual access rights; safeguards; and notice requirements.
Response: We have added to the definition of "payment" disclosure of certain information to consumer reporting agencies. With respect to the remaining concerns, this rule does not apply to consumer reporting agencies if they are not covered entities.
Comment: Several commenters recommended prohibiting disclosure of psychotherapy notes under this provision and under all of the sections governing disclosure without consent for national priority purposes.
Response: We agree that psychotherapy notes should not be disclosed without authorization for payment purposes, and the final rule does not allow such disclosure. See the discussion under § 164.508.