The rule applies to the health care industry and would, therefore, affect that industry disproportionately. Any long-run increase in the costs of health care services would largely be passed on to the entire population of consumers. However, as discussed in the administrative simplification regulation, the Transactions Rule is estimated to save the health care industry nearly $30 billion over essentially the same time period. This more than offsets the costs of the Privacy Rule; indeed, as discussed above, the establishment of consistent, national standards for the protection of medical information is essential to fully realize the savings from electronic transactions standards and other advances that may be realized through "e-health" over the next decade. Without strong privacy rules, patients and providers may be very reluctant to fully participate in electronic and e-health opportunities.