Spending on Social Welfare Programs in Rich and Poor States. Final Report.. Endnotes

07/01/2004

2 The Food Stamp Program requires a state match for administrative costs.

3 Medicaid is a program that pays for medical assistance for certain individuals and families with low incomes and resources. This program became law in 1965 and is jointly funded by the Federal and State governments (including the District of Columbia and the Territories) to assist States in providing medical long-term care assistance to people who meet certain eligibility criteria. Medicaid is the largest source of funding for medical and health-related services for people with limited income. Source: <http://www.cms.hhs.gov/medicaid/>

4 Section 401 (a) of the Social Security Act says that the purpose of TANF is to increase flexibility of States in operating a program designed to: 1) Provide assistance to needy families so that children may be cared for in their own homes or in the homes of relatives; 2) End the dependence of needy parents on government benefits by promoting job preparation, work, and marriage; 3) Prevent and reduce the incidence of out-of-wedlock pregnancies and establish annual numerical goals for preventing and reducing the incidence of these pregnancies; and 4) Encourage the formation and maintenance of two-parent families.

5 Two commonly cited examples are states that impose severance and property taxes on oil, gas, and coal companies for extracting fossil fuels and states that derive large amounts of sales tax and fee revenue from a substantial tourist trade. Also, it fails to count the income of nonresident commuters (e.g., New Jersey and Connecticut residents who work in New York).

6 Tannenwald (1998) calculates each state's "fiscal comfort" by dividing its index of RTS tax capacity by its index of fiscal need. The fiscal need is based on how much is required to provide a standard level of services in the state. Tax effort is measured by the ratio of state tax collections to the taxes it would have collected under the RTS.

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