Setting the Baseline: A Report on State Welfare Waivers. Table I.A, Section 1115 Waivers Affecting JOBS Exemptions


State Part-time participation when child is at least age Full-time participation when child is at least age Other provisions
Alabama 6 months 6 years*  
Arizona -- 1 year Under pilot Full Employment Demonstration Project only.
Arkansas 1 year* 6 years* Parents under the age of 16 are required to participate in JOBS, either through school attendance or another educational activity.
California 3 years 6 years* The JOBS exemption for having a child under age 3 will be limited to one child during a period of continuous AFDC eligibility (a period without a break of at least 6 consecutive months off AFDC). Upon the birth or adoption of a child while on AFDC, a 4-month JOBS exemption will be provided.
Connecticut 1 year* 6 years* Exemptions are available for: children under 18, unless the child is a minor parent not in school; individuals who are incapacitated or of advanced age; individuals needed to care for an incapacitated household member; pregnant or postpartum women, if a physician has said she is unable to work; and otherwise "unemployable" individuals. No exemption is provided for caring for a child under 1 if the child is subject to the family cap provisions.
Delaware 12 weeks 6 years* JOBS exemption for those working over 30 hours per week is eliminated. An assessment will be conducted to determine whether such employment is likely to lead to self-sufficiency within the time limit. Parents of children under 12 weeks may be required to attend part-time family planning and parenting classes.
Florida 6 months 6 years*  
Hawaii 6 months 6 years* Limits JOBS exemptions to: a dependent child under age 16; a dependent child attending school full-time; a person who is ill or incapacitated for at least 30 days; a person who must provide in-home care to ill or incapacitated family member; a person over age 60, or a VISTA volunteer.
Idaho 12 weeks 6 years* Removes JOBS exemptions for: minor parents (assigned activity will be school attendance or an approved alternative educational activity); those working 30 hours or more per week, unless they are earning at least 30 times the federal hourly minimum wage; and for women who are pregnant, unless they are determined to be unable to participate for medical reasons.
Indiana 3 years, phased down to 12 weeks 6 years* Eliminates the JOBS exemptions for recipients living in rural or hard-to-access areas, and those employed 30 or more hours per week. For children conceived while family is on AFDC, exemptions will only be allowed for care of a child under 12 weeks.
Iowa 3 months 6 years* Only JOBS exemptions allowed are for care of child, for individuals already working 30 hours per week or more, and for disabled individuals.
Kansas 3 years* 3 years Exemptions related to illness, injury or incapacity will no longer refer to the individual's potential for education or training. A pregnancy in itself will no longer be grounds for an exemption. Persons residing in a licensed certified alcohol or drug treatment center will be exempt. A person with multiple or severe barriers which make it unlikely that participation in work-related activities would result in self-sufficiency will be exempt.
Maine 2 years* 6 years* Exemptions are limited to: caretakers for a child under 2; individuals who are unable to work due to a physical or mental condition (including pregnancy when a doctor certifies that the woman is unable to work without undue risk to herself or the fetus); caretakers of an impaired household member, individuals aged 60 or older; caretakers of a child with professionally documented needs related to physical or mental disabilities; children under 16, who are not heads of household, and in school; and full-time VISTA volunteers.
Maryland 12 weeks 1 year Eliminates JOBS exemption for having a medical disability of more than 12 months, unless recipient applies for SSI and application is pending or in appeal. Eliminates exemption for pregnancy, unless a doctor says it is medically required.
Michigan -- -- Eliminates all JOBS exemptions, except for VISTA volunteers and children under age 16. Participants who were not required to participate before the implementation of the waiver must now participate 20 hours per week under a Social Contract, which can include a wide range of self-sufficiency activities.
Minnesota 3 years* 6 years* Exemptions from work requirements are limited to recipients who are: under 20 and attending high school full time, age 60 or older, ill, injured or incapacitated, working at least 30 hours per week, caretakers of a child under age 3 of an ill or incapacitated family member, is expecting to give birth within six months, has difficulty obtaining and retaining a job due to lack of proficiency in English, or meet other hardship criteria.
Montana 1 year* 6 years* Eliminates exemption for teen parents under age 16. Minor parents of all ages are required to participate in education as their JOBS activity and are subject to JOBS sanctions.
Nebraska 12 weeks 6 months Exemptions from the time-limits and from participation requirements are limited to recipients with mental, emotional or physical barriers that preclude self-sufficiency, and to recipients who do not have parental responsibility for the children.
New Hampshire 1 year* 1 year Eliminates automatic exemption from JOBS for remoteness. Individuals who have significant employment-related barriers (as defined in State policy manuals) will be exempt from JOBS. The age of child exemption may be reduced to 13 weeks in the case of a child conceived while the parent was receiving AFDC, with certain restrictions.
New Jersey 2 years* 6 years* Parents with children under 2 will be non-exempt for the purposes of required participation in counseling and vocational assessment. Eliminates exemption for those employed 30 or more hours per week.
North Carolina 5 years 6 years* Under statewide Work First program, exemptions are limited to: disabled and incapacitated individuals; those needed as caretakers for disabled individuals in the home; parents of a child under 5 years old (unless the parent is working more than 30 hours per week); individuals under 16 or over 65; 16- and 17-year-olds who are attending school; and individuals who can not participate because the state can not provide child care and reasonable transportation.
North Dakota 3 years* 6 years* In 10 county pilot project, limits exemptions to full-time VISTA volunteers, dependent children under age 16, and parents or caretakers of a child under age 3. Recipients' health and commuting status will be taken into consideration in determining the activities to be included in the social contract.
Oregon 3 months 6 years* Eliminates all JOBS exemptions except for VISTA volunteers. Instead, case managers determine JOBS exemptions on an individual basis. Pregnant women are only exempt during the last month of pregnancy and for the first three months after birth.
South Carolina 1 year* 6 years* Exemption for care of child is not provided if custodial parent is under age 25 and has not completed high school. Exemptions are also provided for individuals at least 6 months pregnant, incapacitated individuals; those caring for an incapacitated person; and individuals unable to participate because child care or transportation was not provided. Other JOBS exemptions are eliminated.
Tennessee 16 weeks 6 years* Individuals working between 30 and 40 hours per week and pregnant women are not automatically exempt.

5 years*

(will drop to 4 years in 9/97)

6 years* JOBS exemption based on age of youngest child may be used only once for each family.
Utah -- -- All current JOBS exemptions are eliminated, except that for children under age 16.
Vermont 16 weeks 6 years* Eliminates exemptions for recipients with temporary disabilities, or based on pregnancy.
Wisconsin 1 year* 1 year Under statewide Pay for Performance waiver, exemptions are limited to: one parent caring for a child under age 1; recipients subject to learnfare provisions; incapacitated individuals; individuals needed to care for incapacitated individuals; non-legally responsible relatives who are not in the budget group; pregnant women in their second or third trimester; those age 60 or over; full-time VISTA volunteers; those working 30 or more hours per week; and individuals residing in areas where the work program is not available. Similar provisions apply under the pilot Work Not Welfare waiver.
Wyoming 1 year* 1 year In three counties, able-bodied AFDC recipients must work or perform community service unless: full-time student, participating in approved training at least 40 hours per week; has child under age 1 (under 3 months if child is conceived while family is receiving assistance); or employed at least 35 hours per week.


* These age limits do not require waivers from AFDC requirements.