The issues raised in this paper suggest that states and localities face a number of decisions in selecting an approach to screening and assessing TANF clients for unobserved barriers to employment. The paper also offers examples of how some states and localities have answered questions related to screening and assessment. However, the issues and discussion presented here generate a number of questions that require additional information to fully address. This suggests that, regardless of the chosen strategy, states, localities, and the federal government should consider incorporating data collection into approaches implemented and plan future research related to strategies for identifying barriers to employment. Perhaps most important among future research questions are those that shed light on the effectiveness of different approaches to screening or assessment of TANF clients for barriers to employment. Additionally, many questions remain regarding the factors that may influence the effectiveness of different approaches.