This literature review yielded 23 quantitative research studies and 14 qualitative studies of the role of religiosity on health in low-income populations. Most of the quantitative studies (17) focus on the relationship between religiosity, depression, and other mental health outcomes. One subset of studies that focus on mental health (6) also includes indicators of overall health status and physical health (e.g., self-ratings of asthma or diabetes). Only one study focuses solely on physical health (dental decay). An additional 5 quantitative studies examine the relationship between individual religiosity and use of preventive health services (e.g., mammograms). Of these 5 studies of preventive health services, 3 are part of larger evaluations of cancer awareness education programs.