Following the research methods described in Section 1, we identified 11 quantitative research studies that consider the role of religious denomination and/or church attendance in marriage and relationship outcomes for the low-income population. Only three of these studies focus specifically on the effect of religion; the other studies focus in more detail on additional determinants of marriage and include religion and church attendance as control variables in the multivariate analysis. We did not identify any published qualitative studies that focus specifically on religion and marriage for this population.
All of the identified research studies that focus on the low-income population were published within the past five years. This increase in research targeting low-income couples coincided with the implementation of the federally funded Healthy Marriage Initiative (HMI), which funds state and local efforts to provide marriage and relationship educational programming targeted primarily to low-income couples and communities. Several research and intervention studies were also funded as part of this effort.