Similar to the studies that focus on the general population, the majority of the five studies are cross-sectional and the measurement of religiosity varies by study. Two of these studies view religiosity from a one-dimensional perspective, with church attendance as the sole measure of religiosity. The other three studies include a two-item measure of religiosity. In one, church attendance is included along with a measure of how close one feels to God; in another, church attendance is included with the importance of religion in ones life; and in the third study, church attendance is included along with a measure of church membership. While the latter three studies use a two-item measure of religiosity, they do not combine the items to produce an overall score; rather they analyze data separately for each item. These findings of one-dimensional measurement are consistent with those from the systematic review of religiosity and delinquency conducted by Johnson and colleagues (2000a).