The available research that examines the role of religiosity on crime/violence in low-income populations highlights several gaps in the literature:
- The reliance on one-item measures to assess religiosity/spirituality rather than using more comprehensive and multidimensional measures of religiosity.
- The limited number of studies that treat religious variables as the central focus of the study or that specifically explore the role that religiosity/spirituality plays in crime and violence research among low-income populations.
- Crime and violence are broad topic areas and thus have a vast number of measurement options. This creates a challenge to drawing specific conclusions about the role of religiosity in crime or violence research among low-income populations.
- The limited number of qualitative or mixed-method studies that can provide context for understanding the influence of religiosity on crime and violence within this population.
- The limited number of longitudinal studies that can elucidate the long-term impact of religiosity on crime and violence.
- Samples do not contain a sufficient proportion of disadvantaged youths, a population in which religion may have its most important effects.