In the four quantitative studies included in this review, the outcomes of interest vary considerably. They range from delinquent behaviors as measured by a total of 19 items relating to personal, property, and illegal service offenses that have been combined into a single scale of general crime, to engagement in child maltreatment behaviors, to the intentions to use violence and lastly to involvement in any nondrug illegal activities. The mixed-methods study uses self-reported adult crime and incarceration data as the crime outcomes of interest. The majority of the studies in this topical review use primary data or local secondary data. To understand unemployment among American black youths living in inner-city poverty tracts, Johnson et al. (2000b) use the Survey of Inner-City Black Youth. This survey was administered in 1979 and 1980 to black males aged 1624 living in Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia. The Johnson (2008b) study used a subsample from the National Youth Survey of youths who reside in disordered neighborhoods. This survey is a longitudinal study of a national probability sample of youths designed to examine the entire range of self-reported norm-violating behavior for which youths could be arrested.