Role of Religiosity in the Lives of the Low-Income Population: A Comprehensive Review of the Evidence. Moderating Effect of Religiosity on Outcomes


Moderator variables determine the direction or strength of the relationship between the explanatory and outcome variables in a given model (Baron and Kenny, 1986). In this case, moderator models are used to assess the differential buffering or protective influence of religiosity against negative outcomes for various subgroups (e.g., income, gender, race, chronically ill). As an example, under this framework, religiosity could be hypothesized to have a moderating effect between a stressor (e.g., stress associated with material deprivation) and a behavioral outcome. Moderating effects are considered indirect effects because they depend on interaction with another explanatory or descriptive/contextual factor.

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