Commenting on the magnitude of the effect of religion and religiosity on marriage outcomes in the studies conducted before 2000, Mahoney et al. (2001) concluded that although the average effect sizes of well-supported hypotheses were small , such associations for global variables in large, highly heterogeneous samples are not trivial (p. 88). Studies conducted after 2000 find that religiosity reduces negative relationship outcomes that were not included in the meta-analysis. These studies find that religiosity is associated with lower marital infidelity (Burdette, Ellison, Sherkat, & Gore, 2007) and less domestic violence (Ellison, Trinitapoli, Anderson, & Johnson, 2007). Thus far, however, the spiritual dimensions of marriage and relationships have not been the subject of significant empirical research.