The bulk of the quantitative research literature that has focused on the relationship between religion and marriage relies on single-item measurement of religion and religious practice, consists mainly of cross-sectional samples, and uses research designs that do not address selection issues (Waite & Lehrer, 2003). These methodological limitations (discussed in Section 1) constrain understanding of the causal mechanisms that underlie these relationships. In a recent article, Mahoney and Tarakeshwar (2005) note that overall, social science research indicates that greater religiosity is clearly tied to multiple aspects of family life. However, this body of research is best described as embryonic (p. 186). New research studies discussed in this section are beginning to address these limitations.