Lastly, a research study conducted by Tellez, Sohn, Burt, and Ismail (2006) points to the importance of considering community religiosity when studying physical health outcomes. These researchers examine dental records of a representative sample of African American caregivers in Detroit and find that after controlling for an array of indicators of health status, social support and access to service providers, the number of churches in respondents neighborhoods decreases the number of untreated tooth decay problems while individual religious beliefs are not statistically significant. This may be related to findings from the study by Aaron, Levine, and Burstin (2003), discussed in the next section, which indicate that more frequent church attendance is associated with increased likelihood of dental visits. This study also indicates that without appropriately modeling the community and individual effects of religiosity, it is possible that the effects of individual religiosity on physical health outcomes could be overestimated.
3. Are religiosity and spirituality associated with use of preventive health and treatment services such as cancer screening and reproductive health services among low-income populations?