As the information presented in Figure I.2 shows, the intermediaries included in this study represent a broad range of organizations. (Examples of the kinds of organizations that are represented among these various categories can be found in Appendix B.) While a few sites rely only on nonprofit organizations, most use a mix of nonprofit, for-profit, and public organizations, as well as educational institutions to link welfare recipients with jobs. (A site by site listing of the number of intermediaries by type of organization is included in Appendix C). Still, the overwhelming majority of the intermediaries in the study sites are nonprofit organizations, accounting for 67 percent of the intermediaries overall and 74 percent of the intermediaries in the urban sites. The intermediaries in the rural areas are more equally split among the various types of organizations.
Within these broad categories, the organizations that act as intermediaries bring a broad range of expertise to the task of linking welfare recipients with employment. The majority of the non-profit organizations are of two types: (1) local entities or local affiliates of national organizations (e.g., the Urban league, Salvation Army, Goodwill, etc.) that have a long history of providing employment-related services to disadvantaged populations and (2) organizations with expertise in addressing the supportive service, and sometimes the employment, needs of special populations such as ex-offenders, persons with disabilities, or persons who speak limited English. Only a few nonprofit organizations are new to the communities in which they provide services or have no experience providing employment services to or working with welfare recipients.
Represented among the for-profit intermediaries are organizations that have been providing employment services to welfare recipients for many years and organizations that are new to the employment service arena. Most of the for-profit intermediaries are large organizations with a national presence, although a few are smaller local organizations. The educational institutions that act as intermediaries include community colleges, adult education programs, and local school districts. The public or quasi-public agencies that act as intermediaries include city governments, local JTPA agencies and public housing authorities.
1. By the time we conducted site visits to the local communities, some of the caseloads had dropped below 500 families.
2. By the time we conducted site visits to the local communities, some of the caseloads had dropped below 500 families.
3. This information is site-specific. All other information in the database corresponds to a specific intermediary.