Role of Faith-Based and Community Organizations in Providing Relief and Recovery Services After Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Endnotes

[1]  The White House. Fact Sheet: The Federal Response to Katrina: Lessons Learned. Accessed November 19, 2008, at

[2]  According to the 2005 Louisiana Hurricane Impact Atlas, 108,456 square miles of land were affected by hurricane Katrina. The land area of Great Britain is approximately 95,500 square miles. See

[3]  U.S. Department of Homeland Security. 2006. Current Housing Unit Damage Estimates: Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma.

[4]  Louisiana Recovery Authority. 2005. Addressing the Challenges of Recovery and Rebuilding from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita: Overview of Comparative Damage. Accessed March 8, 2008, at

[5]  See, for example, Tony Pipa, 2006, Weathering the Storm: The Role of Local Nonprofits in the Hurricane Katrina Relief Effort, Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute Nonprofit Sector Research Fund; James J. Carafano and Richard Weitz., 2006, Learning from Disaster: The Role of Federalism and the Importance of Grassroots Responses, Washington, DC: The Heritage Foundation; and the 2005 Louisiana Survey Post-Hurricane Community Audit, conducted by the Public Policy Research Lab, Louisiana State University, Accessed March 8, 2008, at

[6]  See, for example, Tobi Jennifer Printz, 1998, Faith-Based Service Providers in the Nations Capital: Can They Do More? Charting Civil Society Brief 2, Washington, DC: The Urban Institute; Mark Chaves and William Tsitsos, 2001, Congregations and Social Services: What They Do, How They Do It, and With Whom, Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 30/4: 66083; and Fredrica D. Kramer, Demetra Smith Nightingale, John Trutko, Shayne Spaulding, and Burt S. Barnow, 2002, Faith-Based Organizations Providing Employment and Training Services: A Preliminary Exploration, Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

[7]  Traditional responders include government emergency response agencies, such as FEMA, and national and international nongovernmental organizations dedicated to disaster relief.

[8]  A larger sample would have increased our ability to analyze the data by smaller subgroups or simultaneously by multiple subgroups. However, budget constraints and a lack of information at the outset of the study regarding how many organizations were recipients or providers of assistance, particularly in the heavily impacted areas, made the benefits of drawing a larger sample unclear.

[9]  The sampling frame for this study is congregations and nonprofits that were listed in these two data sources. We were unable to identify a source that contained information on organizations that operated before the storms but closed as a consequence of the storms.

[10]  Two sources were used to identify impacted areas: for Louisiana, the Congressional Research Service report Hurricane Katrina: Social-Demographic Characteristics of Impacted Areas and for Mississippi, FEMA-1604-DR, Mississippi Disaster Declaration as of 10/27/2005. See Appendix A for further detail.

[11]  To estimate this number, we assumed that the proportion of the unable-to-contact organizations (111) that were not operating was the same as the proportion of  not operating organizations (100) in the sample for which operating status was known (that is, 100 divided by 504 organizations).

[12]  Additional data runs, not shown in this analysis, generally indicated that the age of an FBCO was not correlated with the size of the organization, the number of staff, or the number of volunteers. The only exception was that secular nonprofits tended to be larger as the age of the organization increased, but this association between age and size did not apply to faith-based organizations.

[13]  These categories are not mutually exclusive, so a particular individual may fall into more than one category.

[14]  Long-term recovery structures are known variously as long-term recovery committees, long-term recovery organizations, long-term recovery groups, or unmet needs committees. Throughout this document, we refer to them generically, as long-term recovery or unmet needs structures.

[15]  The organization currently supports only seven parish long-term recovery committees. There are no formal arrangements as of this writing with two parishes, St. Charles and St. John.

[16]  Spiritual counseling was mentioned by 75 percent of the faith-based respondents and 20 percent of the secular nonprofits. It is unclear, however, if spiritual counseling was provided on an individual basis or as part of worship services, Sunday sermons, or general social ministries.

[17]  The Nonprofit Roundtable of Greater Washington. 2005. Working Together When the Worst Happens: Nonprofit Emergency Preparedness in the National Capital Region. Washington, DC: The Nonprofit Roundtable of Greater Washington.

[18]  The American Church List contained 14,213 organizations in the combined Louisiana, Mississippi, and Houston, Texas (Astrodome) region. The American Church List is widely considered the most comprehensive source of information on churches and religious congregations in the United States and Canada.

[19]  There were a total of 2,957 nonprofit human service organizations in the combined Louisiana, Mississippi, and Houston, Texas (Astrodome) region in the 2005 NCCS public charities database. The NCCS database is a repository of all U.S. nonprofits that file annual Forms 990 with the Internal Revenue Service. Because nonprofits with less than $25,000 in gross receipts and religious groups are not required to file Forms 990, they are underrepresented in the database. However, the database captures the majority of revenues, expenditures, and assets of the nonprofit sector.

[20]  Compared with the final sample, organizations that did not provide services after the hurricanes and were therefore ineligible to complete the survey were more likely to be nonprofit organizations and in the primary impact area.

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