Review of Sanction Policies and Research Studies. Endnotes

03/10/2003

1.  This study is a continuation of the Maryland leavers study. The data used in Ovwigho et al. (2002) is comparable to the data used in the Born et al. (1999) study, but covers a different time period.

2.  Approximately one-fifth of both sanctioned and non-sanctioned TANF recipients in Utah had an open child welfare case within three years after cash assistance case closure.

3.  Employment information was gathered on TANF recipients' most recent jobs.

4.  Measured 3 months after TANF case closure.

5.  Hardship activities included: (1) pawning or selling personal possessions, (2) taking food or items from stores without paying for them, (3) searching in trash cans or begging, (4) engaging in any illegal activity, and (5) selling or trading food stamps.

6.  Researchers used the USDA definition of food security, which is defined as, "the availabilityand access to nutritionally adequate and safe foods in socially acceptable ways."

 

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