Review of Sanction Policies and Research Studies. Appendices

03/10/2003

Appendix A:
The Structure and Stringency of Work-Oriented Sanctions
State Type of Sanction1 Time to Full Family Minimum Duration (months) Cure Requirements
Alabama Gradual Full Family 3 months 3 Participation in activities for 2 weeks
Alaska Partial   None Immediate compliance cures sanction
Arizona Gradual Full Family 2 months 1 Participation for 3 days
Arkansas Partial   None Participation for up to 2 weeks
California Partial   None Varies by county
Colorado Gradual Full Family County discretion 1 County discretion
Connecticut Gradual Full Family 6 months 3 Not available
Delaware Gradual Full Family 4 months 2 Participation for 2 weeks
District of Columbia Partial   None Participation for 5 days
Florida Immediate Full Family   None Not available
Georgia Gradual Full Family 3 months None Participant must initiate compliance during 3 month sanction and participate for 2 weeks
Hawaii Immediate Full Family   None Participation for 10 days
Idaho Immediate Full Family   1 Participation for up to 2 weeks
Illinois Gradual Full Family 3 months None Not available
Indiana Partial   2 Willingness to comply
Iowa Immediate Full Family   None Willingness to comply
Kansas Immediate Full Family   None Willingness to comply
Kentucky 2 Immediate Full Family   None Participation for 2 weeks
Louisiana Gradual Full Family 3 months 3 Participation for 2 weeks
Maine Partial   None Not available
Maryland Immediate Full Family   None Not available
Massachusetts Gradual Full Family 30 days None Participation for 2 weeks
Michigan 3 Immediate Full Family   1 Willingness to comply
Minnesota Partial   1 County discretion
Mississippi Immediate Full Family   2 Participation required depends on activity missed
Missouri Partial   None Participation for 2 weeks
Montana Partial   1 Willingness to comply
Nebraska Immediate Full Family   1 Participation for 1 week
Nevada Gradual Full Family 2 months 1 District office discretion
New Hampshire Partial   1 Participation for 2 weeks
New Jersey Gradual Full Family 3 months 1 Participation for up to 2 weeks
New Mexico Gradual Full Family 6 months None Participation for 30 days
New York Partial   None Willingness to comply
North Carolina Gradual Full Family 3 months 3 Not available
North Dakota Gradual Full Family 6 months 1 Participation for 10 days
Ohio Immediate Full Family   1 Willingness to comply at county's discretion
Oklahoma Immediate Full Family   None Participation for 2 weeks
Oregon Gradual Full Family 4 months None Willingness to comply
Pennsylvania 4 Immediate Full Family   1 Not available
Rhode Island Partial   None Participation for 2 weeks
South Carolina Immediate Full Family   None Participation for 30 days
South Dakota Gradual Full Family 1 month None Must begin participation prior to sanction period ending
Tennessee Immediate Full Family   None Participation for 2 weeks
Texas Partial   1 Willingness to participate
Utah Gradual Full Family 2 months None District office discretion
Vermont Partial   None Participation for 2 weeks
Virginia Immediate Full Family   1 Demonstrate compliance after sanction period ends; the length of time depends on nature on non-compliance
Washington Partial   None Participation for 2 weeks
West Virginia Gradual Full Family 6 months 3 Participation for an unspecified period of time
Wisconsin Pay for Performance   None Any participation
Wyoming Immediate Full Family   None Participation for 1 month
Source: Welfare Rules Database, Urban Institute 2000; State Policy Documentation Project.
1 Some states impose different sanction policies for different groups of recipients. If a state has more than one sanction policy, we list the most stringent policy and identify the alternative sanction policy and to whom it applies in a footnote.
2 In Kentucky, an immediate full family sanction is imposed on families who do not complete an assessment. Families who complete an assessment and then fail to comply are subject to a partial, progressive sanction with benefits eventually being assigned to a payee.
3 In Michigan, an immediate full-family sanction is imposed if noncompliance occurs within the first two months of receiving assistance. If noncompliance occurs after the first two months, families are subject to a gradual full family sanction, with the full family sanction taking place after four months of noncompliance.
4 In Pennsylvania, during the first 24 months of benefit receipt, families are subject to a partial sanction. After the first 24 months, families are subject to an immediate full family sanction.

 

Appendix B:
Approach to Repeat Acts of Non-Compliance
State Change in sanction type Longer Minimum Duration Lifetime Ban on Receipt of Assistance Stricter Cure Requirements Reapply for Benefits
Alabama   x     x
Alaska   x      
Arizona x     x x
Arkansas          
California   x      
Colorado x x      
Connecticut x     x x
Delaware x x x x  
District of Columbia   x      
Florida   x     x
Georgia x x x x  
Hawaii   x   x x
Idaho   x x x x
Illinois x x      
Indiana   x      
Iowa   x   x x
Kansas   x   x x
Kentucky       x x
Louisiana x     x x
Maine   x      
Maryland       x  
Massachusetts       x x
Michigan       x x
Minnesota          
Mississippi   x x x x
Missouri   x      
Montana   x      
Nebraska   x      
Nevada   x x    
New Hampshire          
New Jersey   x   x x
New Mexico   x   x x
New York   x      
North Carolina x        
North Dakota   x      
Ohio   x   x x
Oklahoma       x x
Oregon       x x
Pennsylvania   x x   x
Rhode Island          
South Carolina       x x
South Dakota x     x x
Tennessee   x   x x
Texas   x      
Utah       x x
Vermont   x      
Virginia   x      
Washington          
West Virginia x x   x x
Wisconsin   x x    
Wyoming          
Source: Welfare Rules Database, Urban Institute 2000; State Policy Documentation Project.

 

 

Appendix C-1:
The Cost of Most Stringent Work-Oriented Sanctions for a Family of Three
State Monthly Grant for Family of 3 Financial Penalty (Amount) Financial Penalty
(Percent of Cash Grant)
Effect on Food Stamp Benefit Adult Loses Medicaid Eligibility Effect on Child Care
Alabama 164 164 100 Reduced 100% Yes  
Alaska 923 114 12 Partial reduction No  
Arizona 347 347 100 Partial reduction initially No No effect
Arkansas 204 51 25 Partial reduction No  
California 626 150 24 Partial reduction No  
Colorado 357 357 100 Partial reduction No  
Connecticut 543 543 100 Partial reduction No No effect
Delaware 338 338 100 Reduced 100% No No effect
District of Columbia 379 103 27 Partial reduction No Ineligible
Florida 303 303 100 Reduced 100% No  
Georgia 280 280 100 Reduced 100% No Eligibility redetermined
Hawaii 570 570 100 Partial reduction No No effect
Idaho 276 276 100 Partial reduction Yes  
Illinois 377 377 100 Partial reduction No No effect
Indiana 288 74 26 Partial reduction Yes  
Iowa 426 426 100 Partial reduction initially No Eligibility redetermined
Kansas 429 429 100 Reduced 100% Yes  
Kentucky 262 262 100 Partial reduction No  
Louisiana 190 190 100 Reduced 100% Yes Ineligible
Maine 461 155 34 Partial reduction No  
Maryland 399 399 100 Partial reduction No No effect
Massachusetts 579 579 100 Reduced 100% No  
Michigan 459 459 100 Partial reduction Yes  
Minnesota 532 181 34 Partial reduction No Eligibility redetermined
Mississippi 170 170 100 Partial reduction initially Yes  
Missouri 292 73 25 Partial reduction No  
Montana 469 119 25 Partial reduction No No effect
Nebraska 535 535 100 Partial reduction initially Yes No effect
Nevada 348 348 100 Partial reduction Yes No effect
New Hampshire 550 363 66 Partial reduction No  
New Jersey 424 424 100 Reduced 100% No  
New Mexico 439 439 100 Partial reduction Yes  
New York 577 190 33 Partial reduction No  
North Carolina 272 272 100 Partial reduction No  
North Dakota 457 457 100 Reduced 100% No  
Ohio 362 362 100 Reduced 100% Yes  
Oklahoma 292 292 100 Reduced 100% No Eligibility redetermined
Oregon 503 503 100 Partial reduction No Ineligible
Pennsylvania 403 403 100 Partial reduction No No effect
Rhode Island 554 142 26 Partial reduction No Ineligible
South Carolina 201 201 100 Partial reduction Yes Ineligible
South Dakota 430 430 100 Reduced 100% No  
Tennessee 185 185 100 Partial reduction No  
Texas 188 31 17 Reduced 100% No  
Utah 451 451 100 Reduced 100% No No effect
Vermont 622 62 10 Partial reduction No  
Virginia 291 291 100 Reduced 100% No No effect
Washington 546 218 40 Partial reduction No  
West Virginia 303 303 100 Partial reduction No No effect
Wisconsin 628 628 100 Partial reduction No No effect
Wyoming 340 340 100 Partial reduction Yes  
Source: Welfare Rules Database, Urban Institute 2000; Welfare Rules Database, Urban Institute 1999; Typologies Project, Urban Institute 2000; GAO 2000; State Policy Documentation Project.

 

 

Appendix C-2.
The Cost of Most Stringent Work-Related Sanctions for a Family of Three
(Number of States)
Amount of Financial Penalty Total States States with Full-Family Food Stamp Sanction States that Terminate Adult Medicaid
< $100 5 1 1
$101-200 12 3 3
$201-300 8 3 2
$301-400 11 4 3
$401 + 15 8 4
Total 51 19 13
Source: Welfare Rules Database, Urban Institute 2000; Welfare Rules Database, Urban Institute 1999; Typologies Project, Urban Institute 2000; GAO 2000; State Policy Documentation Project.

 

 

Appendix D:
Pre-Approval Requirements and Approach to Exemptions
  Pre-Approval work-related requirements Approach to Exemptions (Universal Participation, Same as JOBS, Broader Participation)
State Signed Employability Plan Signed Personal Responsibility Contract Orientation Job Search
Alabama       x Broader Participation
Alaska         Same as JOBS
Arizona   x   x Broader Participation
Arkansas       x Broader Participation
California     x   Same as JOBS
Colorado         Not Categorized
Connecticut         Same as JOBS
Delaware         Same as JOBS
District of Columbia         Not Categorized
Florida         Broader Participation
Georgia x x   x Broader Participation
Hawaii         Broader Participation
Idaho   x   x Universal Participation
Illinois         Universal Participation
Indiana       x Broader Participation
Iowa         Broader Participation
Kansas       x Same as JOBS
Kentucky   x     Broader Participation
Louisiana         Same as JOBS
Maine     x   Universal Participation
Maryland x x   x Same as JOBS
Massachusetts         Same as JOBS
Michigan     x   Universal Participation
Minnesota         Same as JOBS
Mississippi   x     Same as JOBS
Missouri       x Broader Participation
Montana   x x   Universal Participation
Nebraska         Same as JOBS
Nevada       x Universal Participation
New Hampshire         Broader Participation
New Jersey   x     Broader Participation
New Mexico         Same as JOBS
New York       x Broader Participation
North Carolina x x     Not Categorized
North Dakota   x     Universal Participation
Ohio       x Not categorized
Oklahoma       x Broader Participation
Oregon   x   x Universal Participation
Pennsylvania         Same as JOBS
Rhode Island         Broader Participation
South Carolina       x Broader Participation
South Dakota         Universal Participation
Tennessee         Same as JOBS
Texas   x x   Same as JOBS
Utah         Universal Participation
Vermont         Same as JOBS
Virginia x       Same as JOBS
Washington         Universal Participation
West Virginia x x     Broader Participation
Wisconsin x x   x Universal Participation
Wyoming         Universal Participation
Source: State Policy Documentation Project; Pavetti et al 1998; Thompson et al. 2000.

 

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