Research on Employment Supports for People with Disabilities: Summary of the Focus Group Findings. Locality Characteristics

09/01/2001

Exhibit 1 provides an overview of key locality characteristics, including the population of each state and locality, and the poverty and unemployment rates of the states. The localities vary substantially in population size, both at the state and metropolitan-area level. Data from 1999 indicate that unemployment rates across the states are roughly comparable (approximately five percent). While poverty rates in New Jersey and Washington are similar (about nine percent), the rate in California is substantially higher (15 percent).

Exhibit 1. State and Metropolitan Area Characteristics
State and Metropolitan Area Characteristics California New Jersey Washington
Population (2000) 33,871,648 8,414,350 5,894,121
Percent of Persons in Poverty* 15.3 8.5 9.2
Unemployment Rate (1999) 5.2 4.6 4.7
  Los Angeles Newark Seattle/Tacoma
Metropolitan Area Population (1999) 16,036,587 1,954,671 3,465,760
* Three-year moving average from the Current Population Survey, 1997-1999.

Exhibit 2 summarizes demographic characteristics by disability status for each of the three states in which focus groups were conducted. Disability prevalence across the states is similar, ranging from nine percent (with any disability) in New Jersey to 10 percent in California and Washington. Educational attainment is roughly equal across the states, with about 13 percent of individuals possessing a college degree. The percent with a high school degree in California and New Jersey are roughly equal (65 and 64 percent, respectively), while the figure is somewhat higher (75 percent) in Washington.

Exhibit 2. Population Characteristics by Disability Status, 19901
Characteristic Any Disability Work Disability
(Any Severity)
Work Disability
(Unable to Work)
CA NJ WA CA NJ WA CA NJ WA
Male 1,002,748 224,624 168,086 733,663 156,380 148,297 335,049 69,325 57,222
Female 946,237 226,524 151,479 687,552 154,458 131,408 382,270 83,887 62,814
Total  1,948,985   451,148   319,565   1,421,215   310,838   279,705   717,319   153,212   120,036 
   Percent of Population (Age 16-64) 10.2 9 10.4 7.4 6.2 9.1 3.7 3 3.9
Percentage of Individuals with Income:
   Below 100% of poverty 18 15.4 21.8 18.1 16.4 22.8 22.6 22.9 32.3
   Below 125% of poverty 26.2 19.3 27.4 27.1 20.6 28.6 35.4 28.5 39.6
   Below 200% of poverty 42.5 30.6 42.3 43.4 32.3 43.7 54.6 42.7 56.3
   Below 300% of poverty 59 46.4 59.8 59.4 47.9 61.1 70.4 72.6 72.3
Percent with High School Degree 65.2 64.2 74.7 66.4 63.2 74.5 56.2 53.2 63.8
Percent with College Degree 12.9 13.1 12.5 12.5 12 12.2 7.6 7.4 6.9
Employment
Percent in Labor Force 49.3 52.8 50.1 40.2 41.8 46.4 -- -- --
Percent Employed 43.5 47.1 44.2 34.8 36.9 40.5 -- -- --
Unemployment Rate 11.7 10.6 11.7 13.4 11.7 12.8 -- -- --

Exhibit 3 summarizes income and program participation across states.

Exhibit 3. Income and Program Participation by State
Characteristics CA NJ WA
INCOME
   Average Annual Pay by Metro Area (1998)* $36,608 $40,413 $39,848
SOCIAL SERVICES
   TANF
      TANF families (monthly average), 1999 624.1 62.2 62.6
         Percent change from 1995 -32.1 -47.6 -38.6
      Average monthly benefit, 1997 $526 $332 $476
      Maximum benefit for family of three (two children), 2000 $626 $424 $546
         Percent real change in maximum benefit since July 1994 (2000) -7.9 -10.7 -10.7
      Maximum TANF plus Food Stamps benefit for family of three (two children), 2000 $813 $672 $757
      Combined federal and state TANF expenditures (millions), 1999 $6,167 $423 $470
         State percentage of expenditures 45.7 64.7 54.8
      Change in state spending (millions), 1995-1999 -$880 -$114 -$107
      Program expenditures per family, 1999 $9,881 $6,799 $7,502
      Work participation rates of beneficiaries, 1998 36.6 26.5 48.5
      Percentage of participants who are non-white 67.7 85.2 32.6
   Medicaid
      Number of recipients with disabilities, 1998 926,252 151,050 112,306
      Average payments for individual with disabilities, 1998 $6,632 $14,063 $9,236
   Food Stamps
      Number of food stamp recipients, 1999  2,027,000   385,000   307,000 
   SSI
      Percentage of general population enrolled, 1999 3.2 1.8 1.7
      Number of individuals with disabilities receiving payments, 1999 714,117 110,657 83,503
   LIHEAP
      Number of households assisted, 1996 156,168 141,931 48,823
      Average benefit, 1996 $61 $229 $325
CA = LA/Long Beach; NJ = Newark; WA = Seattle-Bellevue-Everett
All data from Ways and Means Committee, 2000.