All states identify a range of required and optional ADS in their licensing or certification requirements or other types of agreements. States list required and optional services for each type of ADS that they license, certify, or otherwise regulate (e.g., for adult day care and adult day health care).
The services we included in our review are:
- ADL assistance;
- health education;
- health monitoring;
- medication administration;
- nursing services;
- physical, occupational, and speech therapy;
- skilled nursing services;
- social services; and
We limited our review to these services because the purpose of this study is to better understand the role of ADS in addressing elderly persons' health and functional needs. We did not include services such as emergency services and nutritional services, because they are provided to all residents regardless of residents' functional or health status. See Section 2 for individual state information about which services are required and optional.
States generally require adult day care providers to furnish ADL assistance and health monitoring. Health education; physical, occupational, and speech therapy; and skilled nursing services are less likely to be cited as either required or optional.
States generally require adult day health care or medical adult day care providers to furnish more services than adult day care providers. In addition to ADL assistance, social services, and health monitoring, adult day health care providers are generally required to furnish medication administration; nursing services; physical, occupational, and speech therapy; and skilled nursing services.