Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Alzheimer's Disease: A Literature Review. References


Alzheimer's Association. (2011). "2010 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures." Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.alz.org/documents_custom/report_alzfactsfigures2010.pdf.

Alzheimer's Association. (2012). "2011 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures." Retrieved May 11, 2012, from http://www.alz.org/downloads/facts_figures_2011.pdf.

Alzheimer's Association. (2014). "2013 Alzheimer's Disease Facts and Figures." Retrieved January 21, 2014, from http://www.alz.org/alzheimers_disease_facts_and_figures.asp.

Anderson, L.M., S.C. Scrimshaw, M.T. Fullilove, J.E. Fielding, & J. Normand. (2003). "Culturally competent healthcare systems: A systematic review." Am J Preventive Medicine, 24(3 Suppl), 68-79.

Ayalon, L., & P.A. Arean. (2004). "Knowledge of Alzheimer's disease in four ethnic groups of older adults." Int J Geriatr Psychiatry, 19(1), 51-57; doi: 10.1002/gps.1037.

Beach, M.C., E.G. Price, T.L. Gary, K.A. Robinson, A. Gozu, A. Palacio, et al. (2005). "Cultural competency: A systematic review of health care provider educational interventions." Med Care, 43(4), 356-373.

Belgrave, L.L., M.L. Wykle, & J.M. Choi. (1993). "Health, double jeopardy, and culture: The use of institutionalization by African-Americans." Gerontologist, 33(3), 379-385.

Belle, S.H., L. Burgio, R. Burns, D. Coon, S.J. Czaja, D. Gallagher-Thompson, et al. (2006). "Enhancing the quality of life of dementia caregivers from different ethnic or racial groups: A randomized, controlled trial." Ann Intern Med, 145(10), 727-738.

Betancourt, J.R., A.R. Green, J.E. Carrillo, & O. Ananeh-Firempong. (2003). "Defining cultural competence : A practical framework for addressing racial/ethnic disparities in health and health care." Pub Health Rep, 118(August), 293-302.

Connolly, A., E.L. Sampson, & N. Purandare. (2012). "End-of-life care for people with dementia from ethnic minority groups: A systematic review." J Am Geriatr Soc, 60(2), 351-360; doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.2011.03754.x.

Cooper, C., A.R. Tandy, T. Balamurali, & G. Livingston. (2010). "A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ethnic Differences in Use of Dementia Treatment, Care, and Research." Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 18(3), 193-203.

Crean, S., A. Ward, C.J. Mercaldi, J.M. Collins, M.N. Cook, N.L. Baker, et al. (2011). "Apolipoprotein E4 prevalence in Alzheimer's disease patients varies across global populations: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis." Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord, 31(1), 20-30.

Eiser, A.R., & G. Ellis. (2010). "Cultural competence and the African American experience with health care: The case for specific content in cross-cultural education." Academic Med, 82(2), 176-183.

Farrer, L.A., L.A. Cupples, J.L. Haines, B. Hyman, W.A. Kukull, R. Mayeux, et al. (1997). "Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on the association between apolipoprotein E genotype and Alzheimer disease. A meta-analysis." APOE and Alzheimer Disease Meta Analysis Consortium. JAMA, 278(16), 1349-1356.

Feng, Z., M.L. Fennell, D.A. Tyler, M. Clark, & V. Mor. (2011). "Growth of racial and ethnic minorities in US nursing homes driven by demographics and possible disparities in options." Health Aff, 30(7), 1358-1365.

Fowler, F.J., C.A. Levin, & K.R. Sepucha. (2011). "Informing and involving patients to improve the quality of medical decisions." Health Aff, 30(4), 699-706.

Froehlich, T.E., S.T. Bogardus, & S.K. Inouye. (2001). "Dementia and race: Are there differences between African Americans and Caucasians?" J Am Geriatr Soc, 49(4), 477-484.

Gelman, C.R. (2010). "Learning from recruitment challenges: Barriers to diagnosis, treatment, and research participation for Latinos with symptoms of Alzheimer's disease." J Gerontol Social Work, 53(1), 94-113.

Gilligan, A.M., D.C. Malone, T.L. Warholak, & E.P. Armstrong. (2012). "Racial and ethnic disparities in Alzheimer's disease pharmacotherapy exposure: An analysis across four state Medicaid populations."American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 10(5), 303-312; doi: 10.1016/j.amjopharm.2012.09.002.

Gilligan, A.M., D.C. Malone, T.L. Warholak, & E.P. Armstrong. (2013). "Health disparities in cost of care in patients with Alzheimer's disease: An analysis across 4 state Medicaid populations." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 28(1), 84-92.

Gillum, R.F., & T.O. Obisesan. (2011). "Differences in mortality associated with dementia in U.S. Blacks and Whites." J Am Geriatr Soc, 59(10), 1823-1828.

Glymour, M.M., A. Kosheleva, V.G. Wadley, C. Weiss, & J.J. Manly. (2011). "Geographic distribution of dementia mortality: Elevated mortality rates for Black and White Americans by place of birth." Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 25(3), 196-202.

Glymour, M.M., & J.J. Manly. (2008). "Lifecourse social conditions and racial and ethnic patterns of cognitive aging." Neuropsychology Review, 18(3), 223-254.

Gray, H.L., D.E. Jimenez, M.A. Cucciare, H.Q. Tong, & D. Gallagher-Thompson. (2009). "Ethnic differences in beliefs regarding Alzheimer disease among dementia family caregivers." Am J Geriatr Psychiatry, 17(11), 925-933.

Green, A.R., D.R. Carney, D.J. Pallin, L.H. Ngo, K.L. Raymond, L.I. Iezzoni, et al. (2007). "Implicit bias among physicians and its prediction of thrombolysis decisions for Black and White patients." J Gen Intern Med, 22(9), 1231-1238.

Green, R.C., L.A. Cupples, R. Go, K.S. Benke, T. Edeki, P.A. Griffith, et al. (2002). "Risk of dementia among White and African American relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease." JAMA, 287(3), 329-336.

Gruber-Baldini, A.L., B. Stuart, I.H. Zuckerman, L. Simoni-Wastila, & R. Miller. (2007). "Treatment of dementia in community-dwelling and institutionalized Medicare beneficiaries." J Am Geriatr Soc, 55(10), 1508-1516.

Gruneir, A., S.C. Miller, Z. Feng, O. Intrator, & V. Mor. (2008). "Relationship between state Medicaid policies, nursing home racial composition, and the risk of hospitalization for Black and White residents." Health Serv Res, 43(3), 869-881.

Gurland, B.J., D.E. Wilder, R. Lantigua, Y. Stern, J. Chen, E.H. Killeffer, et al. (1999). "Rates of dementia in three ethnoracial groups." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(6), 481-493.

Hargrave, R., M. Stoeklin, M. Haan, & B. Reed. (1998). "Clinical aspects of Alzheimer's disease in Black and White patients." Journal of the National Medical Association, 90(2), 78-84.

Harwood, D.G., & R.L. Ownby. (2000). "Ethnicity and dementia." Current Psychiatry Reports, 2(1), 40-45.

Hernandez, S., M.J. McClendon, X-H.A. Zhou, M. Sachs, & A.J. Lerner. (2010). "Pharmacological treatment of Alzheimer's disease: Effect of race and demographic variables." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 19(2), 665-672.

Husaini, B.A., D.E. Sherkat, M. Moonis, R. Levine, C. Holzer, & V.A. Cain. (2003). "Racial differences in the diagnosis of dementia and in its effects on the use and costs of health care services." Psychiatric Services, 54(1), 92-96.

Janevic, M.R., & C.M. Connell. (2001). "Racial, ethnic, and cultural differences in the dementia caregiving experience: Recent findings." Gerontologist, 41(3), 334-347.

Jett, K. (2006). "Mind-loss in the African American community: Dementia as a normal part of aging." Journal of Aging Studies, 20(1), 1-10.

Liaison Committee on Medical Education. (2012). "Accreditation Standards." Retrieved May 12, 2012 from http://www.lcme.org/.

Maestre, G., R. Ottman, Y. Stern, B. Gurland, M. Chun, M.X. Tang, et al. (1995). "Apolipoprotein E and Alzheimer's disease: Ethnic variation in genotypic risks." Annals of Neurology, 37(2), 254-259.

McClendon, M.J., S. Hernandez, K.A. Smyth, & A.J. Lerner. (2009). "Memantine and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment in cases of CDR 0.5 or questionable impairment." Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, 16(3), 577-583.

Mehta, K.M., K.  Yaffe, E.J. Pérez-Stable, A. Stewart, D. Barnes, B.F. Kurland, et al. (2008). "Race/ethnic differences in AD survival in US Alzheimer's Disease Centers." Neurology, 70(14), 1163-1170.

Miller, S.C., J.C. Lima, & S.L. Mitchell. (2010). "Hospice care for persons with dementia: The growth of access in US nursing homes."American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias, 25(8), 666-673.

Napoles, A.M., L. Chadiha, R. Eversley, & G. Moreno-John. (2010). "Developing culturally sensitive dementia caregiver interventions: Are we there yet? Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen, 25(5), 389-406.

National Institute on Aging. (2010). "Health Disparities Strategic Plan: Fiscal Years 2009-2013." Retrieved May 12, 2012 from http://www.nia.nih.gov/about/health-disparities-strategic-plan-fiscal-years-2009-2013/40-areas-emphasis-integration.

Noble, J.M., J.J. Manly, N. Schupf, M.X. Tang, & J.A. Luchsinger. (2012). "Type 2 diabetes and ethnic disparities in cognitive impairment." Ethnicity and Disease, 22(1), 38-44.

Office of Minority Health. (2001). "National Standards on Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS)." Retrieved from http://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/templates/browse.aspx?lvl=2&lvlID=15.

Perryman, M., M. Lewis, & P.A. Rivers. (2009). "Treatment disparities in medication prescribing for Alzheimer's: disease among ethnic groups." Journal of Health Care Finance, 35(4), 64-73.

Purnell, C., S. Gao, C.M. Callahan, & H.C. Hendrie. (2009). "Cardiovascular risk factors and incident Alzheimer disease: A systematic review of the literature." Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, 23(1), 1-10; doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e318187541c.

Quiñones, A.R., M. O'Neil, S. Saha, M. Freeman, S.R. Henry, & D. Kansagara. (2011). "Interventions to Improve Minority Health Care and Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities Health Care." VA-ESP Project #05-225. Available at http://www.hsrd.research.va.gov/publications/esp/healthcare-disparities.pdf.

Roff, L.L., L.D. Burgio, L. Gitlin, L. Nichols, W. Chaplin, & J.M. Hardin. (2004). "Positive aspects of Alzheimer's caregiving: The role of race." J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci, 59(4), P185-190.

Rovner, B.W., R.J. Casten, C. Arenson, B. Salzman, & E.B. Kornsey. (2012). "Racial differences in the recognition of cognitive dysfunction in older persons." Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord, 26(1), 44-49; doi: 10.1097/WAD.0b013e3182135f09.

Samper-Ternent, R., Y.F. Kuo, L.A. Ray, K.J. Ottenbacher, K.S. Markides, & S. Al Snih. (2012). "Prevalence of health conditions and predictors of mortality in oldest old Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites."Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 13(3), 254-259; doi: 10.1016/j.jamda.2010.07.010.

Searight, H.R., & J. Gafford. (2005). "Cultural diversity at the end of life: Issues and guidelines for family physicians."Am Fam Physician, 71(3), 515-522.

Sink, K.M., K.E. Covinsky, R. Newcomer, & K. Yaffe. (2004). "Ethnic differences in the prevalence and pattern of dementia-related behaviors." J Am Geriatr Soc, 52(8), 1277-1283.

Smedley, B.D., A.Y. Stith, & A.R. Nelson. (2003). "Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care." Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Tang, M.X., P. Cross, H. Andrews, D.M. Jacobs, S. Small, K. Bell, et al. (2001). "Incidence of AD in African-Americans, Caribbean Hispanics, and Caucasians in northern Manhattan." Neurology, 56(1), 49-56.

Teresi, J.A., D. Holmes, M. Ramirez, B.J. Gurland, & R. Lantigua. (2002). "Performance of Cognitive Tests Among Different Racial/Ethnic and Education Groups: Findings of Differential Item Functioning and Possible Item Bias Multicultural Measurement In Older Populations." New York, NY: Springer.

Vincent, G.K., & V.A. Velkoff. (2010). "The Next Four Decades--The Older Population in the United States: 2010 to 2050. U.S. Department of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, Bureau of the Census.

Wendler, D., R. Kington, J. Madans, G. Van Wye, H. Christ-Schmidt, L.A. Pratt, et al. (2006). "Are racial and ethnic minorities less willing to participate in health research?" PLoS Medicine, 3(2), e19-e19.

Yaffe, K., C. Falvey, T.B. Harris, A. Newman, S. Satterfield, A. Koster, et al. (2013). "Effect of socioeconomic disparities on incidence of dementia among biracial older adults: Prospective study." BMJ, 347, f7051; doi: 10.1136/bmj.f7051.

View full report


"RacEthDis.pdf" (pdf, 361.48Kb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®