We also estimated variants of model (1) in which we tested for whether participation in SP vs LRP has an impact on the retention of providers in HPSAs. As shown in Table B.8 in Appendix B, we find that participants in SP are less likely to remain in HPSAs after service completion. All the differences we report in Table B.8 are statistically significant at significance levels of less than 1%. The models in Table B.8 are obtained from regression models that were estimated only the subsample of physicians serving in primary care HPSAs. . We could not estimate models using data for mental health physicians or non-physician providers because the number of scholarship program participants in these groups was severely limited.