Provider Retention in High Need Areas. Main Results

12/22/2014

We estimated model (1) using a logit regression specification, separately for primary care and mental health HPSAs, and by using the ‘same HPSA’ and the ‘any HPSA’ indicators as dependent variables.  The coefficient estimates are shown in Tables V.1-V.4.  In each of these tables we present 7 models, each estimated by the number of years elapsed since separation from service (for participants) and by the number of years since start year (for non-participants).

In all models of Table V.1 we estimated a lower probability of remaining in the same primary care HPSA for participants relative to non-participants.  Female providers were slightly less likely to remain in HPSAs, and older providers were more likely to remain in the same HPSA over time.  We detected virtually no differences in retention by provider type and, with the exception of the first two years since separation/start year, found no differences in retention by Census divisions.  Providers leaving service or appearing for the first time in the data in the earlier years (2005 or 2006) had a higher probability of remaining in the same HPSA relative to those whose separation/start year was beyond 2008.

It is important to note that the coefficient estimates on the local area characteristics are in many cases statistically significant, indicating that providers are more likely to remain in HPSAs where the poverty rate is higher, the fraction of older population is higher and the ratio of individuals over the age of 25 with a high school degree is lower.  Estimating the models separately on the population of participant providers and then on the population of non-participants, we found that the size of these effects are somewhat larger for non-participants than for participants.12 These findings are consistent with one of the hypothesis of our theoretical model, that providers who serve in HPSAs in the absence of the inducement provided by the NHSC programs have a higher preference for being in underserved areas.13

Table V. 1: Logit Models of Retention in the Same County-Same HPSA by Years since Separation—Primary Care

Variable

1 Year

2 Years

3 Years

4 Years

5 Years

6 Years

> 6 Years

NHSC Participant

-2.253***

-1.531***

-1.326***

-1.212***

-1.080***

-1.083***

-0.868***

(0.081)

(0.071)

(0.077)

(0.081)

(0.091)

(0.108)

(0.093)

Female

0.010

-0.044***

-0.039**

-0.076***

-0.066***

-0.081***

-0.048**

(0.021)

(0.017)

(0.016)

(0.018)

(0.018)

(0.018)

(0.019)

Age 36 to 45

0.265***

0.259***

0.290***

0.323***

0.291***

0.249***

0.082

(0.023)

(0.023)

(0.022)

(0.024)

(0.033)

(0.044)

(0.064)

Age 46 to 55

0.581***

0.608***

0.680***

0.762***

0.749***

0.727***

0.447***

(0.033)

(0.030)

(0.030)

(0.030)

(0.037)

(0.048)

(0.064)

Age 56 to 65

0.771***

0.782***

0.898***

0.977***

0.977***

0.981***

0.705***

(0.044)

(0.038)

(0.038)

(0.036)

(0.043)

(0.051)

(0.064)

Age Over 65

1.051***

1.045***

1.189***

1.254***

1.265***

1.279***

0.991***

(0.069)

(0.059)

(0.056)

(0.051)

(0.056)

(0.055)

(0.070)

Medical Doctor

-0.199

-0.202

-0.241*

-0.241

-0.116

-0.331**

0.061

(0.176)

(0.134)

(0.139)

(0.147)

(0.128)

(0.150)

(0.177)

Nurse Practitioner

-0.032

-0.017

-0.043

-0.036

0.027

-0.175

0.253

(0.182)

(0.135)

(0.142)

(0.152)

(0.141)

(0.154)

(0.179)

Physician Assistant

-0.202

-0.180

-0.222

-0.221

-0.075

-0.355**

0.105

(0.188)

(0.139)

(0.147)

(0.156)

(0.151)

(0.159)

(0.196)

Start Year 2005

0.360***

1.038***

0.920***

0.852***

0.811***

0.530***

0.177***

(0.039)

(0.032)

(0.040)

(0.040)

(0.036)

(0.028)

(0.025)

Start Year 2006

0.157***

0.558***

0.520***

0.473***

0.404***

   

(0.044)

(0.040)

(0.044)

(0.044)

(0.039)

   

Start Year 2007

-0.091**

0.472***

0.512***

0.464***

     

(0.042)

(0.035)

(0.046)

(0.040)

     

Start Year 2008

-0.034

0.392***

0.369***

       

(0.041)

(0.040)

(0.049)

       

Middle Atlantic

-0.249

-0.217

0.074

0.068

0.049

0.020

-0.142

(0.225)

(0.225)

(0.244)

(0.258)

(0.258)

(0.253)

(0.234)

East North Central

-0.586***

-0.514***

-0.137

-0.147

-0.095

-0.139

-0.279

(0.145)

(0.141)

(0.190)

(0.193)

(0.191)

(0.190)

(0.184)

West North Central

-0.321*

-0.264

0.105

0.091

-0.004

-0.022

-0.210

(0.166)

(0.171)

(0.212)

(0.218)

(0.224)

(0.223)

(0.216)

South Atlantic

-0.406***

-0.386***

-0.030

-0.026

-0.008

-0.042

-0.057

(0.146)

(0.146)

(0.189)

(0.194)

(0.190)

(0.187)

(0.174)

East South Central

-0.770***

-0.674***

-0.273

-0.249

-0.180

-0.209

-0.252

(0.171)

(0.161)

(0.207)

(0.212)

(0.211)

(0.206)

(0.190)

West South Central

-0.818***

-0.688***

-0.266

-0.266

-0.223

-0.253

-0.216

(0.229)

(0.235)

(0.284)

(0.287)

(0.292)

(0.288)

(0.283)

Mountain

-0.131

-0.129

0.214

0.173

0.174

0.114

0.031

(0.141)

(0.138)

(0.187)

(0.193)

(0.193)

(0.187)

(0.181)

Pacific

-0.269*

-0.247

0.051

0.056

0.050

0.088

-0.032

(0.156)

(0.163)

(0.207)

(0.213)

(0.210)

(0.202)

(0.197)

Log Family Income

-0.095

-0.151

-0.192

-0.235

-0.265

-0.304

-0.648***

(0.220)

(0.224)

(0.227)

(0.235)

(0.231)

(0.225)

(0.219)

Poverty Rate

0.035***

0.033***

0.032***

0.031***

0.030***

0.030***

0.026***

(0.006)

(0.006)

(0.006)

(0.007)

(0.006)

(0.006)

(0.006)

Percent White

-0.299

-0.376

-0.621*

-0.679*

-0.633*

-0.450

0.054

(0.377)

(0.354)

(0.371)

(0.371)

(0.367)

(0.367)

(0.361)

Percent Black

0.559

0.500

0.489

0.435

0.460

0.555

0.887**

(0.385)

(0.357)

(0.374)

(0.368)

(0.370)

(0.368)

(0.369)

Pct HS Grads Over 25 Yrs

-3.886***

-4.140***

-3.899***

-3.401***

-3.850***

-3.744***

-4.858***

(0.935)

(0.958)

(0.994)

(0.982)

(1.007)

(0.981)

(1.037)

Pct Population Over 65

3.218**

3.047**

4.128***

3.914***

3.980***

3.676**

3.353**

(1.280)

(1.279)

(1.438)

(1.513)

(1.540)

(1.432)

(1.387)

Intercept

4.201*

3.706

3.355

3.340

3.675

4.333*

8.132***

(2.375)

(2.407)

(2.419)

(2.554)

(2.499)

(2.396)

(2.390)

Observations

195,189

191,713

178,925

165,474

149,059

141,902

147,725

 

NOTE: Robust standard errors, clustered by HPSA, in parentheses.  *, ** and ***: significant at 10%, 5% and 1%.  The base group is defined as providers who are: male, age 26-35, non-physician and non-NP/PA, having a start year of 2009 or later, and serving in a location in the Northeast.  The coefficient on any of the dummy variables included in these models shows the estimated difference relative to the corresponding excluded category.

Estimating model (1) with the ‘any HPSA’ indicator as the dependent variable, we found very similar patterns in the retention of providers in primary care HPSAs (Table V.2).   The main difference is that the coefficients on family income variable become statistically significant and negative, indicating that providers are less likely to stay in HPSAs where the average family income is increasing.  Along with the estimates on the other local area characteristics (that are directionally similar to the estimates from Table V.1), these findings are in line with our hypothesis that providers serving in HPSAs have a preference to serve underserved populations.

Table V. 2: Logit Models of Retention in Any HPSA by Years since Separation—Primary Care

Variable

1 Year

2 Years

3 Years

4 Years

5 Years

6 Years

> 6 Years

NHSC Participant

-1.432***

-0.829***

-0.667***

-0.564***

-0.444***

-0.418***

-0.301***

(0.096)

(0.079)

(0.083)

(0.089)

(0.092)

(0.117)

(0.102)

Female

-0.032

-0.077***

-0.075***

-0.107***

-0.101***

-0.113***

-0.074***

(0.029)

(0.024)

(0.022)

(0.022)

(0.022)

(0.023)

(0.023)

Age 36 to 45

0.233***

0.199***

0.228***

0.234***

0.195***

0.193***

-0.045

(0.032)

(0.028)

(0.025)

(0.029)

(0.035)

(0.050)

(0.076)

Age 46 to 55

0.577***

0.569***

0.552***

0.609***

0.564***

0.563***

0.206***

(0.045)

(0.039)

(0.037)

(0.037)

(0.043)

(0.055)

(0.078)

Age 56 to 65

0.799***

0.786***

0.812***

0.820***

0.791***

0.792***

0.420***

(0.061)

(0.045)

(0.045)

(0.043)

(0.048)

(0.059)

(0.080)

Age Over 65

1.071***

0.961***

1.044***

1.072***

0.990***

1.011***

0.606***

(0.095)

(0.082)

(0.068)

(0.062)

(0.064)

(0.066)

(0.086)

Medical Doctor

0.098

0.040

-0.213

-0.095

0.016

-0.291

0.239

(0.231)

(0.158)

(0.177)

(0.184)

(0.162)

(0.198)

(0.218)

Nurse Practitioner

0.182

0.127

-0.116

0.003

0.051

-0.234

0.332

(0.243)

(0.164)

(0.178)

(0.201)

(0.180)

(0.206)

(0.219)

Physician Assistant

0.031

0.045

-0.156

0.027

0.144

-0.209

0.385

(0.255)

(0.175)

(0.192)

(0.203)

(0.184)

(0.211)

(0.240)

Start Year 2005

0.337***

0.955***

0.786***

0.666***

0.619***

0.400***

0.101***

(0.055)

(0.043)

(0.048)

(0.046)

(0.043)

(0.036)

(0.031)

Start Year 2006

0.203***

0.497***

0.471***

0.366***

0.309***

   

(0.064)

(0.048)

(0.054)

(0.048)

(0.045)

   

Start Year 2007

-0.055

0.473***

0.513***

0.422***

     

(0.053)

(0.044)

(0.059)

(0.048)

     

Start Year 2008

0.026

0.406***

0.392***

       

(0.056)

(0.049)

(0.061)

       

Middle Atlantic

-0.078

-0.119

0.181

0.152

0.155

0.159

-0.012

(0.378)

(0.375)

(0.385)

(0.395)

(0.395)

(0.390)

(0.327)

East North Central

-0.480**

-0.420*

-0.021

-0.031

0.022

-0.009

-0.166

(0.225)

(0.222)

(0.271)

(0.265)

(0.264)

(0.260)

(0.233)

West North Central

0.020

-0.005

0.392

0.363

0.214

0.242

0.187

(0.272)

(0.271)

(0.311)

(0.301)

(0.316)

(0.312)

(0.277)

South Atlantic

-0.035

-0.040

0.364

0.339

0.352

0.327

0.293

(0.250)

(0.244)

(0.280)

(0.275)

(0.275)

(0.265)

(0.228)

East South Central

-0.556*

-0.460

-0.056

-0.057

0.056

0.028

0.088

(0.309)

(0.289)

(0.335)

(0.330)

(0.330)

(0.320)

(0.276)

West South Central

-0.568

-0.460

0.013

0.022

0.091

0.079

0.073

(0.361)

(0.369)

(0.433)

(0.430)

(0.431)

(0.431)

(0.394)

Mountain

0.558*

0.543*

0.922***

0.909***

0.869**

0.810**

0.648**

(0.329)

(0.316)

(0.349)

(0.337)

(0.350)

(0.330)

(0.286)

Pacific

0.027

-0.011

0.323

0.351

0.344

0.403

0.228

(0.256)

(0.267)

(0.311)

(0.303)

(0.302)

(0.290)

(0.282)

Log Family Income

-0.524

-0.612*

-0.743**

-0.839**

-0.906**

-0.927***

-1.297***

(0.355)

(0.354)

(0.360)

(0.365)

(0.359)

(0.356)

(0.338)

Poverty Rate

0.075***

0.071***

0.064***

0.060***

0.056***

0.063***

0.057***

(0.014)

(0.013)

(0.014)

(0.014)

(0.013)

(0.014)

(0.013)

Percent White

-0.145

-0.056

-0.291

-0.367

-0.234

0.092

0.561

(0.677)

(0.584)

(0.601)

(0.593)

(0.564)

(0.560)

(0.519)

Percent Black

0.807

0.846

0.995

0.957

1.003

1.097

1.372**

(0.785)

(0.689)

(0.727)

(0.714)

(0.687)

(0.680)

(0.660)

Pct HS Grads Over 25 Yrs

-5.306***

-5.511***

-5.305***

-4.667***

-5.256***

-4.831***

-5.655***

(1.638)

(1.633)

(1.621)

(1.582)

(1.601)

(1.582)

(1.582)

Pct Population Over 65

9.565***

9.253***

10.301***

10.193***

10.024***

9.671***

9.738***

(3.042)

(2.872)

(3.043)

(2.976)

(2.932)

(2.729)

(2.586)

Intercept

8.221**

8.188**

9.194**

9.835**

10.623***

10.745***

14.696***

(4.075)

(3.975)

(3.994)

(4.074)

(4.004)

(3.939)

(3.808)

Observations

195,189

191,713

178,925

165,474

149,059

141,902

147,725

 

NOTE: Robust standard errors, clustered by HPSA, in parentheses. *, ** and ***: significant at 10%, 5% and 1%. The base group is defined as providers who are: male, age 26-35, non-physician and non-NP/PA, having a start year of 2009 or later, and serving in a location in the Northeast.  The coefficient on any of the dummy variables included in these models shows the estimated difference relative to the corresponding excluded category.

In the case of mental health HPSAs, male and female providers did not differ in their retention probability in the same HPSA (Table V.3).  Similar to primary care providers, the older the providers the more likely they were to remain in the same mental health HPSA.   Also, providers with a separation/start year at the beginning of our timeframe were in general more likely to remain in the same HPSA.  In terms of differences in retention relative to primary care HPSAs, we estimated a lower probability to remain in the same mental health HPSA for medical doctors and nurse practitioners relative to other mental health workers, with the effect being stronger in the further out separation/start years.  We also estimated more variation in same HPSA retention by Census divisions.  Providers in the East South Central and South Atlantic divisions were least likely to remain in the same mental health HPSA.  Finally, although the estimates on poverty rate and percent of people over 25 who are high school graduates are directionally the same as in the case of primary care models, we found that a higher proportion of Blacks at the local level increases the retention probability of mental health providers.

Table V. 3: Logit Models of Retention in the Same County-Same HPSA by Years since Separation—Mental Health

Variable

1 Year

2 Years

3 Years

4 Years

5 Years

6 Years

> 6 Years

NHSC Participant

-1.215***

-0.801***

-0.765***

-0.968***

-0.727***

-0.849***

-0.377*

(0.174)

(0.166)

(0.173)

(0.195)

(0.205)

(0.238)

(0.213)

Female

0.018

0.027

0.011

-0.004

-0.018

0.019

0.030

(0.042)

(0.043)

(0.043)

(0.044)

(0.045)

(0.046)

(0.042)

Age 36 to 45

0.128*

0.231***

0.201**

0.243**

0.317*

0.516**

-0.773*

(0.075)

(0.075)

(0.100)

(0.117)

(0.186)

(0.263)

(0.450)

Age 46 to 55

0.066

0.262***

0.354***

0.462***

0.539***

0.786***

-0.464

(0.077)

(0.082)

(0.104)

(0.122)

(0.193)

(0.260)

(0.442)

Age 56 to 65

0.173**

0.389***

0.437***

0.515***

0.638***

0.875***

-0.340

(0.079)

(0.092)

(0.109)

(0.124)

(0.190)

(0.266)

(0.440)

Age Over 65

0.153

0.463***

0.533***

0.635***

0.715***

0.971***

-0.165

(0.105)

(0.109)

(0.121)

(0.131)

(0.194)

(0.271)

(0.440)

Medical Doctor

-0.087

-0.239***

-0.344***

-0.420***

-0.407***

-0.430***

-0.409***

(0.073)

(0.068)

(0.065)

(0.064)

(0.061)

(0.062)

(0.061)

Nurse Practitioner

-0.080

-0.151

-0.128

-0.261**

-0.374***

-0.389***

-0.371***

(0.114)

(0.108)

(0.105)

(0.120)

(0.107)

(0.121)

(0.115)

Start Year 2005

0.185***

0.564***

0.739***

0.679***

0.581***

0.435***

0.067

(0.067)

(0.091)

(0.098)

(0.082)

(0.089)

(0.058)

(0.075)

Start Year 2006

0.100

0.314***

0.516***

0.407***

0.337**

   

(0.101)

(0.121)

(0.130)

(0.113)

(0.131)

   

Start Year 2007

0.153*

0.395***

0.581***

0.483***

     

(0.080)

(0.101)

(0.107)

(0.094)

     

Start Year 2008

0.116

0.373***

0.371***

       

(0.083)

(0.086)

(0.088)

       

Middle Atlantic

0.388

0.260

0.437

0.411

0.350

0.297

0.170

(0.447)

(0.352)

(0.299)

(0.304)

(0.290)

(0.274)

(0.267)

East North Central

-0.619*

-0.593**

-0.255

-0.281

-0.299

-0.436**

-0.407**

(0.349)

(0.262)

(0.213)

(0.207)

(0.197)

(0.186)

(0.202)

West North Central

-0.332

-0.331

-0.111

-0.114

-0.149

-0.268

-0.336

(0.388)

(0.307)

(0.257)

(0.259)

(0.234)

(0.222)

(0.220)

South Atlantic

-0.706*

-0.655**

-0.483**

-0.397*

-0.464**

-0.483**

-0.547**

(0.385)

(0.298)

(0.246)

(0.235)

(0.226)

(0.214)

(0.219)

East South Central

-1.561***

-1.434***

-1.180***

-1.107***

-1.093***

-1.306***

-1.175***

(0.495)

(0.432)

(0.398)

(0.402)

(0.393)

(0.354)

(0.354)

West South Central

-0.897**

-0.900**

-0.455

-0.457

-0.485

-0.643**

-0.758**

(0.439)

(0.362)

(0.321)

(0.312)

(0.304)

(0.304)

(0.331)

Mountain

-0.332

-0.223

0.058

-0.007

0.103

-0.006

0.008

(0.399)

(0.319)

(0.276)

(0.266)

(0.259)

(0.245)

(0.242)

Pacific

-0.283

-0.230

0.008

-0.015

-0.020

-0.062

-0.100

(0.454)

(0.356)

(0.301)

(0.288)

(0.273)

(0.251)

(0.242)

Log Family Income

0.005

0.075

0.158

0.180

0.115

0.066

-0.164

(0.330)

(0.290)

(0.278)

(0.272)

(0.281)

(0.246)

(0.229)

Poverty Rate

0.053***

0.054***

0.055***

0.056***

0.052***

0.052***

0.053***

(0.016)

(0.013)

(0.013)

(0.012)

(0.011)

(0.011)

(0.010)

Percent White

-0.218

-0.211

-0.197

-0.173

-0.281

-0.221

-0.228

(0.728)

(0.595)

(0.622)

(0.553)

(0.568)

(0.562)

(0.528)

Percent Black

2.068**

1.752**

1.737**

1.770***

1.755***

1.548**

1.441**

(0.915)

(0.734)

(0.711)

(0.652)

(0.675)

(0.648)

(0.629)

Pct HS Grads Over 25 Yrs

-4.369**

-4.435**

-3.875**

-4.037**

-3.707**

-3.489**

-3.971***

(2.106)

(1.815)

(1.697)

(1.712)

(1.653)

(1.694)

(1.518)

Pct Population Over 65

2.645

2.090

2.868

3.673

2.831

1.848

2.100

(3.139)

(2.605)

(2.572)

(2.402)

(2.337)

(2.341)

(2.009)

Intercept

1.749

0.391

-1.495

-1.898

-1.196

-0.755

3.288

(4.054)

(3.608)

(3.454)

(3.357)

(3.435)

(3.054)

(2.916)

Observations

19,046

18,609

16,841

15,111

13,123

12,758

13,547

 

NOTE: Robust standard errors, clustered by HPSA, in parentheses. *, ** and ***: significant at 10%, 5% and 1%.  The base group is defined as providers who are: male, age 26-35, non-physician and non-NP/PA, having a start year of 2009 or later, and serving in a location in the Northeast.  The coefficient on any of the dummy variables included in these models shows the estimated difference relative to the corresponding excluded category.

As shown in Table V.4, the difference in retention between participants and non-participants disappeared in the case of mental health ‘same HPSA’.  Other important features in Table V.4 are that the differences in retention by age group, provider type, separation/start year and Census division were less pronounced or virtually non-existent, while the differences by local area characteristics are similar to those from Table V.3.

Table V. 4: Logit Models of Retention in Any HPSA by Years since Separation—Mental Health

Variable

1 Year

2 Years

3 Years

4 Years

5 Years

6 Years

> 6 Years

NHSC Participant

0.007

0.162

0.143

-0.007

0.267

0.051

0.280

(0.198)

(0.162)

(0.176)

(0.191)

(0.192)

(0.208)

(0.196)

Female

0.028

0.045

0.014

0.011

-0.009

0.002

-0.004

(0.044)

(0.046)

(0.044)

(0.044)

(0.049)

(0.043)

(0.045)

Age 36 to 45

0.123

0.127

0.120

0.047

0.416**

0.322

-0.493

(0.080)

(0.083)

(0.101)

(0.119)

(0.174)

(0.243)

(0.523)

Age 46 to 55

0.023

0.113

0.165

0.127

0.512***

0.471*

-0.354

(0.081)

(0.089)

(0.106)

(0.125)

(0.176)

(0.245)

(0.515)

Age 56 to 65

0.118

0.203**

0.196*

0.109

0.575***

0.501**

-0.355

(0.083)

(0.097)

(0.106)

(0.122)

(0.175)

(0.239)

(0.518)

Age Over 65

0.143

0.276**

0.321***

0.285**

0.641***

0.595**

-0.205

(0.113)

(0.116)

(0.117)

(0.131)

(0.184)

(0.240)

(0.517)

Medical Doctor

0.104

0.047

-0.048

-0.094

-0.070

-0.081

-0.118*

(0.080)

(0.075)

(0.072)

(0.066)

(0.068)

(0.068)

(0.071)

Nurse Practitioner

0.015

0.092

0.151

0.043

0.032

0.061

-0.121

(0.121)

(0.115)

(0.106)

(0.127)

(0.114)

(0.126)

(0.114)

Start Year 2005

0.055

0.227***

0.395***

0.329***

0.175**

0.219***

0.003

(0.071)

(0.084)

(0.099)

(0.083)

(0.079)

(0.061)

(0.085)

Start Year 2006

0.037

0.070

0.259*

0.122

-0.005

   

(0.100)

(0.122)

(0.135)

(0.123)

(0.131)

   

Start Year 2007

0.120

0.210**

0.413***

0.344***

     

(0.079)

(0.096)

(0.111)

(0.102)

     

Start Year 2008

0.093

0.183**

0.276***

       

(0.088)

(0.088)

(0.094)

       

Middle Atlantic

0.477

0.359

0.515

0.490

0.451

0.420

0.293

(0.496)

(0.403)

(0.360)

(0.366)

(0.355)

(0.332)

(0.316)

East North Central

-0.605

-0.580*

-0.289

-0.303

-0.265

-0.324

-0.320

(0.377)

(0.297)

(0.247)

(0.234)

(0.233)

(0.218)

(0.213)

West North Central

-0.325

-0.316

-0.104

-0.024

0.066

-0.057

-0.046

(0.422)

(0.344)

(0.295)

(0.294)

(0.277)

(0.260)

(0.241)

South Atlantic

-0.655

-0.584*

-0.446

-0.343

-0.247

-0.286

-0.199

(0.420)

(0.341)

(0.289)

(0.274)

(0.272)

(0.250)

(0.241)

East South Central

-1.623***

-1.493***

-1.182***

-1.148***

-1.132***

-1.200***

-1.150***

(0.527)

(0.471)

(0.436)

(0.440)

(0.434)

(0.394)

(0.384)

West South Central

-0.981**

-0.983**

-0.553

-0.574

-0.599*

-0.661*

-0.653*

(0.483)

(0.420)

(0.373)

(0.368)

(0.364)

(0.365)

(0.361)

Mountain

-0.342

-0.155

0.128

0.142

0.275

0.253

0.339

(0.437)

(0.376)

(0.341)

(0.341)

(0.340)

(0.322)

(0.302)

Pacific

-0.294

-0.200

0.013

0.054

0.067

0.056

0.027

(0.492)

(0.408)

(0.351)

(0.338)

(0.327)

(0.305)

(0.288)

Log Family Income

-0.180

-0.165

-0.182

-0.275

-0.296

-0.436

-0.573**

(0.351)

(0.319)

(0.314)

(0.319)

(0.316)

(0.298)

(0.262)

Poverty Rate

0.055***

0.060***

0.061***

0.057***

0.056***

0.057***

0.063***

(0.019)

(0.017)

(0.016)

(0.016)

(0.015)

(0.015)

(0.014)

Percent White

-0.077

-0.086

0.116

0.221

0.213

0.328

0.165

(0.809)

(0.745)

(0.731)

(0.657)

(0.672)

(0.653)

(0.649)

Percent Black

2.602**

2.535**

2.595***

2.966***

2.847***

2.678***

2.346***

(1.119)

(1.009)

(0.931)

(0.890)

(0.874)

(0.843)

(0.837)

Pct HS Grads Over 25 Yrs

-4.535*

-4.455**

-4.196**

-4.594**

-4.109**

-3.905**

-3.717**

(2.344)

(2.110)

(1.958)

(1.972)

(1.913)

(1.943)

(1.760)

Pct Population Over 65

3.866

4.571

5.366*

6.069**

6.130**

4.602

6.726**

(3.511)

(3.165)

(3.102)

(2.983)

(3.027)

(2.839)

(2.666)

Intercept

3.730

3.020

2.357

3.490

3.149

4.765

6.871**

(4.359)

(4.060)

(3.942)

(3.976)

(3.925)

(3.703)

(3.420)

Observations

19,046

18,609

16,841

15,111

13,123

12,758

13,547

 

NOTE: Robust standard errors, clustered by HPSA, in parentheses. *, ** and ***: significant at 10%, 5% and 1%.  The base group is defined as providers who are: male, age 26-35, non-physician and non-NP/PA, having a start year of 2009 or later, and serving in a location in the Northeast.  The coefficient on any of the dummy variables included in these models shows the estimated difference relative to the corresponding excluded category.




12 We do not present those models for space considerations, but they are available upon request.

13 The first year of the analytic dataset was 2005 for non-participants. We coded the start year variable to take the value of 1 for all non-participants, although some of them may have been in their locations for longer periods.  We did not detect any differences in the main regression coefficients if we included only providers of ages that are similar to the age of participants.

 

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