Sebastian Negrusa, PhD, John Warner, PhD and Projesh Ghosh, PhD contributed to this report. We benefited greatly from discussions with members of our technical expert panel on the recruiting of providers into the National Health Services Corps (NHSC) program and their retention in under-served areas. We also gratefully acknowledge the input from Caroline Taplin, the ASPE Project Officer. This study was conducted by The Lewin Group under contract number HHSP23320095639WC, task order number HHSP23337023T, with the HHS’s Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation. The authors take full responsibility for the accuracy of material presented herein. The views expressed are those of the authors and should not be attributed to ASPE or HHS.