Prospective Outcomes of Informal and Formal Home Care: Mortality and Institutionalization. APPENDIX B: ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN CAREGIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND CONFOUNDING VARIABLES

TABLE B.1. Associations Between Caregiving Arrangements and Confounding Variables: Mortality
  Disability Help Any Unpaid Help Any Close Family Unpaid Help All Unpaid Help All Unpaid Help, Close Family
Age 1.10* 1.11* 1.11* 1.09* 1.12* 1.12*
Sex 1.78* 1.92* 0.72 2.00* 2.07* 2.19
Race
   Black
   Hispanic
   Other
 
1.37*
1.09
1.03
 
0.78
0.97
-
 
1.06
1.27
1.53
 
1.75*
0.84
1.06
 
0.40*
0.88
0.70
 
4.34
0.59
-
Education
   High School
   College
 
0.73*
0.70*
 
1.13
1.30
 
0.62*
0.43*
 
1.36*
1.16
 
1.61*
1.70*
 
1.49
0.95
Income
   Missing
   >Poverty, <$10,000
   $10,000-$19,000
   $20,000-$34,000
   >$35,000
 
1.08
0.99
0.74*
0.84
0.95
 
1.34
1.87
0.89
1.74
2.53
 
0.98
0.66*
1.02
0.88
2.89*
 
1.48*
1.16
0.57*
0.63*
0.32*
 
1.91*
1.06
0.71
1.13
0.99
 
1.29
1.12
0.60
1.19
1.06*
Living Arrangements
   Lives Alone
   Lives w/Other Persons
 
0.97
2.30*
 
0.76
2.51*
 
0.26*
3.73*
 
5.18*
0.67*
 
1.82*
0.71
 
3.44*
1.01
Social Contacts 0.68* 0.69* 0.67* 0.76* 0.71* 0.77*
Volunteers in Community 0.30* 0.79 0.72* 1.50 0.88 2.80
Control Over Health
   Some
   Little
   None
   Unknown (Proxy)
 
0.74*
2.10*
2.06*
3.59*
 
0.73
0.73
1.05
2.40*
 
0.72*
0.68
0.99
3.22*
 
2.01*
1.50
1.11
0.31*
 
0.63*
1.30
1.22
1.17
 
2.19*
1.30
1.53
0.28*
Health Status
   Very Good
   Good
   Fair
   Poor
 
1.44*
0.52*
2.13*
9.59*
 
0.96
0.61*
1.46*
1.26
 
0.45*
1.32
1.03
1.39
 
1.51
1.04
1.15
0.64*
 
0.56
0.91
0.86
1.38
 
2.86
1.15
1.06
0.57
Activities of Daily Living NA 1.38* 4.02* 1.53* 1.94* 1.60*
Institutional Activities of Daily Living NA 8.69* 13.85 1.80* 2.21* 1.88*
Confusion 2.74* 1.61 0.76 1.29 0.91 7.86
Alzheimer's 10.63* 2.93 4.28 0.64 4.03* 0.43
Urinary Incontinence 4.92* 2.28* 1.24 1.09 1.69* 0.73
Bowel Incontinence 6.46* 2.00* 0.87 1.16 2.16* 0.73
Cancer 1.45* 1.65 0.80 0.73 1.02 0.88
Heart Disease 2.44* 1.34 0.99 1.12 1.28 1.23
Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) 4.52* 1.78* 1.60* 0.55* 1.64* 0.53
Osteoporosis 2.55* 1.54 0.64 0.92 2.24* 0.41
Hip Fracture 3.42* 2.35* 1.00 1.04 2.10* 0.59
Fell 2 or More Times 4.16* 1.24 1.16 1.04 0.99 0.87
Fell Because of Dizziness 5.25* 1.06 1.86* 0.76 0.73 0.67
Nursing Home Stay Prior to 1st Interview 5.52* 2.38 0.79 1.41 1.99* 1.26
Hospital Inpatient Stays 1.86* 1.90* 1.73* 1.35* 1.50* 1.27*
* = significant at <.05
NA = disability outcome is defined on basis of ADLs and IADLs.

 

TABLE B.2. Associations Between Caregiving Arrangements and Confounding Variables: Institutionalization Data Set (Odds Ratios)
  Disability Help Any Unpaid Help Any Close Family Unpaid Help All Unpaid Help All Unpaid Help, Close Family
Age 1.10* 1.11* 1.11* 1.09* 1.12* 1.10*
Sex 1.75* 1.95* 0.71 1.87* 2.06* 1.98
Race
   Black
   Hispanic
   Other
 
1.29*
1.03
1.04
 
0.72
1.37
-
 
1.07
2.03
2.79
 
1.70
0.88
1.20
 
0.39
0.93
0.78
 
7.61
0.58
--
Education
   High School
   College
 
0.72*
0.67*
 
1.12
1.22
 
0.60*
0.40*
 
1.35*
1.14
 
1.64*
1.61
 
1.37
0.93
Income
   Missing
   >Poverty, <$10,000
   $10,000-$19,000
   $20,000-$34,000
   >$35,000
 
1.07
0.97
0.76*
0.83
1.00
 
1.53
1.00
0.82
1.46
2.25
 
0.94
0.74
0.98
0.76
2.74*
 
1.57*
1.15
0.58*
0.65
0.33*
 
1.91*
1.09
0.68
1.17
1.05
 
1.40
1.27
0.61
0.96
0.16*
Living Arrangements
   Lives Alone
   Lives w/Other Persons
 
0.97
2.34*
 
0.80
2.57*
 
0.27*
3.46*
 
5.24*
0.66*
 
1.64*
0.78
 
3.57*
0.99
Social Contacts 0.68* 0.69* 0.66* 0.75* 0.69* 0.76*
Volunteers in Community 0.31* 0.70 0.48* 1.55 0.92 2.75
Control Over Health
   Some
   Little
   None
   Unknown (Proxy)
 
0.75*
2.12*
2.05*
3.68*
 
0.72
0.73
1.04
3.18*
 
0.68
0.80
1.00
3.31*
 
1.97*
1.58*
1.18
0.31*
 
0.63*
1.33
1.30
1.14*
 
2.03
1.43
1.58
0.31*
Health Status
   Very Good
   Good
   Fair
   Poor
 
0.44*
0.54*
2.12*
10.00*
 
0.91
0.61*
1.16*
1.22
 
0.41*
1.29
0.98
1.64*
 
1.36
1.07
1.16
0.66*
 
0.50
0.92
0.90
1.34
 
2.13
1.33
1.04
0.59
Activities of Daily Living NA 1.39* 4.18* 1.52* 1.92* 1.58*
Institutional Activities of Daily Living NA 7.81* 15.65* 1.78* 2.17* 1.84*
Confusion 3.01* 1.38 0.68 1.39 1.03 1.83
Alzheimer's 10.14* 2.56 3.97 0.69 3.61* 0.51
Urinary Incontinence 4.92* 1.97* 1.38 1.04 1.62* 0.70
Bowel Incontinence 6.21* 1.87* 0.96 1.11 2.02* 0.69
Cancer 1.48* 1.77 0.75 0.73 1.07 0.93
Heart Disease 2.38* 1.22 0.99 1.16 1.37 1.29
Cerebrovascular Accident (Stroke) 4.58* 1.69 1.74* 1.61* 1.57* 2.50
Osteoporosis 2.50* 1.48 0.59 1.1 2.81* 0.40
Hip Fracture 3.66* 2.00 1.01 0.90 2.12* 0.47
Fell 2 or More Times 4.11* 1.24 1.24 0.96 0.89 0.64
Fell Because of Dizziness 5.54* 1.13 1.67 0.77 0.70 0.46
Nursing Home Stay Prior to 1st Interview 6.15* 3.34* 0.80 1.30 1.77 1.14
Hospital Inpatient Stays 1.90* 1.93* 1.76* 1.36* 1.50* 1.31*
* = significant at <.05
NA = disability outcome is defined on basis of ADLs and IADLs.

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