Proceedings from a Working Meeting on School Readiness Research: Guiding the Synthesis of Early Childhood Research. References

12/15/2009

 
Curriculum/Intervention Source(s)
Project: Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Research (PCER)
Doors to Discovery, Lets Begin with the Letter People Assel, M.A., Landry, S.H., Swank, P.R., & Gunnewig, S. (2007). An evaluation of curriculum, setting, and mentoring on the performance of children enrolled in pre-kindergarten. Reading and Writing, 20, 463-494.
Early Literacy and Learning Model Cosgrove, M., Fountain, C., Wehry, S., Wood, J., & Kasten, Katherine. (2006, April). Randomized Field Trial of an Early Literacy Curriculum and Instructional Support System.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, California.
  Wehry, S., Cosgrove, M., & Fountain, C. (2006)  Preschool-to-Kindergarten:  A Longitudinal Study of the Effectiveness of the Early Literacy and Learning Model (ELLM). Poster.
Language-Focused Curriculum Pence, K.L., Beckman, A.R., Justice, L.M., & Bowles, R.P. (in press). Preschoolers Exposure to Language Stimulation in Classrooms Serving At-Risk Children: The Contribution of Group Size and Activity Context.  Early Education and Development.
  Justice, L.M., Pence, K., Bowles, R.B., & Wiggins, Alice. (2006). An investigation of four hypotheses concerning the order by which 4-year-old children learn the alphabet letters. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 21, 374-389.
  Massey, S.L., Pence, K.L., & Justice, L.M. (2008). Educators' Use of Cognitively Challenging Questions in Economically Disadvantaged Preschool Classroom Contexts.  Early Education and Development, 19 (2), 340-360.
  Justice, L.M., Mashburn, A., Pence, K.L. & Wiggins, Alice. (2008). Experimental Evaluation of a Preschool Language Curriculum: Influence on Children's Expressive Language Skills.  Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, Vol.51, 983-1001 .
  Pence, K.L., Justice, L.M., & Wiggins, A. K. (in press).  Preschool Teachers' Fidelity in Implementing a Comprehensive Language-Rich Curriculum.  Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools.
  Justice, L. M., Cottone, E. A., Mashburn, A., & Rimm-Kaufman, S. E. (2008). Relationships Between Teachers and Preschoolers Who Are At Risk: Contribution of Childrens Language Skills, Temperamentally-based Attributes, and Gender. University of Virginia.  Unpublished manuscript.
  Rudasill, K.M., Rimm-Kaufman, S.E., Justice, L.M., & Pence, K.  (2006). Temperament and language skills as predictors of teacherchild relationship quality in preschool. Early Education and Development, 17 (2), 271-291.
Literacy Express Lonigan, C.J.  (2006, July).  Impact of Preschool Literacy Curricula: Results of a Randomized Evaluation in a Public Prekindergarten Program.  Paper presented at the 13th annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
  Lonigan, C.J., Farver, J.M., Clancy-Menchetti, J. & Phillips, B.M.  (2005, June). Promoting the Development of Preschool Children's Emergent Literacy Skills: A Randomized Evaluation of a Literacy-Focused Curriculum and Two Professional Development Models.  Paper presented at the 12th annual meeting of the Society for the Scientific Study of Reading, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Building Language for Literacy Ramey, C.T., Ramey, S.L., and Stokes, B.R. (2008).  Effective Pre-K Programs: Research Evidence About Program Dosage and Student Achievement. Unpublished manuscript.  Georgetown University.
  Ramey, S.L. & Ramey, C.T. (2008).  Establishing a science of professional development for early education programs: The knowledge application information systems theory of professional development.  In L.M. Justice and C. Vukelich (Eds.). Achieving excellence in preschool literacy instruction.  New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  Ramey, S.L., Ramey, C.T., Kleinman, B.E., Lee L.M., Farnetti, C.C., Timraz, N.M. et al (2008). The Effects of Curriculum and Coaching Supports on Classrooms and Literacy Skills of Prekindergarten/ Head Start students in Montgomery County Public Schools. Unpublished manuscript.  Georgetown.
Project Approach Powell, D.R., Burchinal, M.R., File, N., & Kontos, S.  (2008).  An eco-behavioral analysis of children's engagement in urban public school preschool classrooms. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 23, 108-123.
Pre-K Mathematics Starkey, P., Klein, A., Clements, D., Sarama, J., Iyer, R.  Effects of a pre-kindergarten mathematics intervention: A randomized experiment. Journal for Research on Educational Effectiveness, in press.
Interagency School Readiness Consortium (ISRC)
Head Start REDI Bierman, K.L., Domitrovich, C.E., Nix, R.L., Gest, S.D., Welsh, J.A., Greenberg, M.T., Blair, C., Nelson, K.E. & Gill, D. (in press).  Promoting academic and social-emotional school readiness: The Head Start REDI program. Child Development.
  Bierman, K.L., Nix, R.L., Greenberg, M.T., Blair, C. & Domitrovich, C.E.  (2007).  Executive functions and school readiness intervention: Impact, moderation, and mediation in the Head Start REDI Program.  Development and Psychopathology, 20, 821-843.
  Bierman, K., Nix, R. & Domitrovich, C.  Beyond "What Works": Using RCTs to Illuminate Mechanisms of Change as well as to Assess Outcomes.  Penn State University. Power point slides.
Chicago School Readiness Raver, C.C., Jones, S.M., LiGrining, C.P., & Metzger, M.  (2008).  Improving Preschool Classroom Processes: Preliminary Findings From a Randomized Trial Implemented in Head Start Settings.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
  Raver, C.C., Jones, S.M., Metzger, M., Li-Grining, C., Smallwood, K., Jones, D., Smith-Donald, R., Sardin-Adjei, L., & Solomon, B.  Early Lessons Learned: Preliminary findings from CSRP.  Powerpoint.  No date provided.
  Li-Grining, C.P., Madison-Boyd, S., Jones, D., Smallwood, K.M., Sardin, L., Metzger, M.W., Jones, S.M., & Raver, C.C.  Implementing a Classroom-Based Intervention in the "Real World":  The Role of Teachers' Psychosocial Stressors.  Powerpoint.  No date provided.
Children's School Success Odom, S.L., Butera, E.H., Schneider, R., Lieber, J., Sarpatwari, S., Horn, E., Palmer, S., Goodman-Jensen, G., Diamond, K., Czaja, C., Hanson, M., & Ceja, M. (2007, April).  Children's School Success: Child outcomes from three years of research.  Paper presented at CEC.  Louisville, KY.
  Lieber, J., Goodman-Jansen, G., Horn, E., Palmer, S., Manson, M., Czaja, C., Butera, G., Daniels, J., & Odom, S. (2007, April).  Factors that Influence the Implementation of a New Curriculum:  Results from Two Years of Implementation. Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston, MA.
  Odom, S.L., Diamond, K., Hanson, M., Lieber, J., Butera, G., Horn, E., et al (2007).  Childrens School Success:  Treatment dosage and child outcomes.  Poster presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Boston, MA.
Getting Ready Sheridan, S.M., Marvin, C.A., & Knoche, L.L., & Edwards, C.P. (in press).  Getting Ready: Promoting School Readiness through a Relationship-based Partnership Model. Early Childhood Services.
  Knoche, L.L., Woods, K.E., & Sheridan, S.M.  Adolescent Parents' Participation in Learning: Factors Contributing to their Children's Development.  Manuscript submitted for publication.
  Sheridan, S.M., Knoche, L.L., & Marvin, C.A.   (2008).  Competent families, competent children: Family-based interventions to promote social competence in young children.  In W.H. Brown, S.L. Odom, & S.R. McConnell (Eds.), Social competence of young children:  Risk, disability, and intervention (2nd ed., pp.301-320).  Baltimore:  Paul H. Brookes.
  Woods, K.E., Knoche, L.L., Rasmussen, K., & Sheridan, S.M.  (2007).  Adolescent Parents Adolescent Parents Participation in Learning: Participation in Learning: Factors Contributing to Factors Contributing to Childrens Development.  Paper presented at the National Association of School Psychologists.  Annual Conference.
  Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., Knoche, L.L., Cline, K.D., & Bovaird, J.A.  (2007 March).  Getting Ready: The Effects of Parent Engagement on School Readiness of Low-Income Children. Poster.  Presented at the Biennial Meeting of the Society for Research on Child Development.  Boston, MA.
  Knoche, L.L., Givens, J.E., & Sheridan, S.M.  (2007).  Risk and Protective Factors for Children of Adolescents: Maternal Depression and Parental Sense of Competence. Journal of Child and Family Studies.
  Sheridan, S.M., Clarke, B.L., Knoche, L.L., & Edwards, C.P.  (2006).  The effects of conjoint behavioral consultation in early childhood settings.  Early Education and Development, 17 (4), 593-617.
  Knoche, L.L., Sheridan, S.M., Cline, K., Givens, J.A. & Fleissner, S.  (2006, June).   Moderating the Effects of Risk on Children's School Readiness: What Are the Roles of Family Literacy and Parent Sense of  Competence? Poster session presented at the annual National Research Conference of Head Start, Washington, DC.
  Sheridan, S.M., Burt, J.D., Clarke, B.L., Taylor, A.M., & Knoche, L.L.  Conjoint Behavioral Consultation: The Effects of a Family-School Partnership for Enhancing Positive Development in Early Childhood.  Poster.  No date given.
  Sheridan, S.M., Edwards, C.P., & Knoche, L.L.  Lessons Learned About Professional Development: Parent Engagement and Child Learning Birth to Five.  Powerpoint slides.  No date given.
LA: ExCELS (Los Angeles: Exploring Children's Early Learning Settings) Fuligni, A. S. (2008, May). School Readiness of English-Speaking and English-Learning Children: Links with Experiences in Early Learning Settings. Power point slides.
  Howes, C. (2008 April).  Diverse Pathways in Early Childhood Professional Development:   An Exploration of Early Educators in Public Schools, Private Preschools, and Family Child Care Homes.  Manuscript.
  Fuligini, A.S.  (2007 May).  Learning Experiences in Preschool Programs for Low-Income Children:  How Do Instructional Activities Promote School Readiness?  Powerpoint Slides.
  Fuligni, A.S.  Childrens Experiences in Early Childhood Programs for Low-Income Children:  Influence of Program Type and Curriculum Use. Manuscript submitted for publication.
MyTeachingPartner (MTP) Whitaker, S., Kinzie, M., Kraft-Sayre, Mashburn, A., & Pianta, R.C.  (2007).  Use and evaluation of web-based professional development services across participant levels of support.  Early Childhood Educational Journal, 34 (6), 379-386.
  Kinzie, M.B., Whitaker, S.D., Neesen, K., Kelley, M., Matera, M., & Pianta, R.C. (2006).  Innovative web-based professional development for teachers of at-risk preschool children.  Educational Technology & Society, 9 (4), 194-204.
  Pianta, R.C., Mashburn, A.J., Downer, J.T., Hamre, B.K., & Justice, L. (in press).  Effects of Web-Mediated Professional Development Resources on Teacher-Child Interactions in Pre-Kindergarten Classrooms.  Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
  Pianta, R.C., Mashburn, A.J., Hamre, B.K., A.J., Downer, J.T., & Justice, L.  Using Web-based Feedback to Improve Teacher-child Interactions in Prekindergarten Classrooms. Powerpoint. No date provided.
  LoCasale-Crouch, J. & Pianta, R.C.  Pre-K Professional Development through Standardized, Systematic Observation and Consultation.  Powerpoint.  No date provided.
EPIC Fantuzzo, J., Bulotsky-Shearer, R., McDermott, P.A., McWayne, C., Frye, D., and Perlman, S.  (2007).  Investigation of dimensions of social-emotional classroom behavior and school readiness for low-income urban preschool children.  School Psychology Review, 36(1), 44-62.
Evaluation of Child Care Subsidy Strategies
Project Upgrade Layzer, J.I., Layzer, C.J., Goodson, B.D., & Price, C.  (2007).  Subsidy Strategies: Findings from Project Upgrade in Miami-Dade County. Washington, DC.  Prepared for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families, OPRE and CCB.  Washington, DC.

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (ACYF).  (2001).  Head Start FACES:  Longitudinal findings on program performance.  Third progress report.  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Administration for Children and Families (ACF). (2003).  Head Start FACES:  A whole-child perspective on program performance. Fourth progress report.  Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Barnett, W. S. (2004). Better teachers, better preschools: Student achievement linked to teacher qualifications. Preschool Policy Matters, 2. New Brunswick, NJ: NIEER.

Bryant, D., Barbarin, O., Clifford, R.M., Early, D., & Pianta, R.  (June 2004).  The National Center for Early Childhood Development and Learning: Multi-state study of pre-kindergartenPresentation at the National Association of the Education of Young Childrens 13th National Institute for Early Childhood Professional Development, Baltimore, MD.

Bowman, B.T., Donovan, M.S., & Burns, M.S. (Eds.). (2001).  Eager to learn: Educating our preschoolers.  Washington, DC.:  National Academy Press.

Burchinal, M. R., Howes, C., & Kontos, S. (2002). Structural predictors of child care quality in child care homes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17, 87-105.

Burchinal, M. R., Cryer, D., Clifford, R. M., & Howes, C. (2002). Caregiver training and classroom quality in child care centers. Applied Developmental Science, 6(1), 2-11.

Clarke-Stewart, K. A., Vandell, D. L., Burchinal, M. R., O'Brien, M., & McCartney, K. (2002). Do features of child care homes affect children's development? Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 17, 52-86.

Early, D., Barbarin, O., Bryant, D., Burchinal, M., Chang, F., Clifford, R., Crawford, G., Weaver, W., Howes, C., Ritchie, S., Kraft-Sayre, M., Pianta, R., & Barnett, W.S.  (2005).  Pre-Kindergarten in Eleven States:  NCEDLs Multi-State Study of Pre-Kindergarten & Study of State-Wide Early Education Programs (SWEEP).  Preliminary Descriptive Report.  University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill.

Early, D., Bryant, D., Pianta, R., Clifford, R., Burchinal, M., Ritchie, S., et al.  (2006).  Are teachers education, major, and credentials related to classroom quality and childrens academic gains in pre-kindergarten?  Early Childhood Research Quality, 21, 174-195.

Early, D., Maxwell, K., Burchinal, M., Alva, S., Bender, R., et al.  (2007).  Teachers education, classroom quality, and young childrens academic skills:  Results from seven studies of preschool programs.  Child Development, 781(2), 558-580.

Howes, C. (1997). Childrens experiences in center-based child care as a function of teacher background and adult-child ratio. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43(3), 404-425.

Howes, C., Whitebook, M., & Phillips, D. (1992). Teacher characteristics and effective teaching in child care: Findings from the National Child Care Staffing Study. Child & Youth Care Forum, 21(6), 399-414.

Hyson, M., Tomlinson, H.B., & Morris, C.  (2008). Quality improvement in early childhood teacher education:  Faculty perspectives and recommendations for the future.  Manuscript under review.

Kontos, S., Howes, C., Shinn, M., & Galinsky, E. (1994). Quality in family child care and relative care. NY: Teachers College Press.

Loeb, S., Rouse, C., & Shorris, A. (2007). Introducing the issue. Excellence in the classroom. The Future of Children, 17(1), 3-14.

Lonigan, C. J., Farver, J. M., Clancy-Menchetti, J., & Phillips, B. M. (2005, April). Promoting the development of preschool childrens emergent literacy skills: A randomizedevaluation of a literacy-focused curriculum and two professional development models. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Atlanta, GA.

Preschool Curriculum Evaluation Consortium (2008). Effects of preschool curriculum programs on school readiness. (NCER 2008-2009). Washington, D.C.: Naitonal Center for Education Research, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Ramey, S.L. & Ramey, C.T. (2008). The effects of curriculum and coaching supports on classrooms and literacy skills of prekindergarten/Head Start students in Montgomery County Public Schools. Unpublished Manuscript. Georgetown University Center on Health and Education. Wahsington, DC.

Saft, E.W. & Pianta, R.C. (2001). Teachers perceptions of their relationships with students: Effects of child age, gender, and ethnicity of teachers and children. School Psychology Quarterly.16, 125141.

Tout, K., Zaslow, M., & Berry, D. (2006). Quality and qualifications: Links between professional development and quality in early care and education settings. In (M. Zaslow & I. Martinez-Beck, Eds.), Critical issues in early childhood professional development. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

Weaver, R.H.  (2002). Predictors of quality and commitment in family child care:  Provider education, personal resources, and support. Early Education and Development, 13(3), 265-282.

Whitebook, M., Howes, C., & Phillips, D. (1990). Who cares? Child care teachers and the quality of care in America. Oakland, CA: Child Care Employee Project.

Whitebook, M., Phillips, D., & Howes, C. (1993). National Child Care Staffing Study revisited: Four years in the life of center-based child care. Oakland, CA: Child Care Employee Project.

Whitebook, M., Sakai, L., Gerber, E., & Howes, C. (2001).  Then and now:  Changes in child care staffing 1994-2000, Technical report.  Washington, DC:  Center for the Childcare Workforce.

Whitebook, M.  (2003). Early education quality:  Higher teacher qualifications for better learning environments-A review of the literature.  Berkeley, CA:  Institute of Industrial Relations, University of California, Berkeley.

Zaslow, M. & Martinez-Beck, I. (2006). Critical issues in early childhood professional development. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.

List of Appendices

C.1       Methods of the Studies
C.2       Content Focus of the Interventions
C.3       Training Activities Provided in the Interventions
C.4       Workplace Characteristics: Auspices/Settings
C.5       Workplace Characteristics: Incentives
C.6       Recipients of Professional Development Activities
C.7       Teacher Characteristics
C.8       Characteristics of Coaches/Mentors
C.9       Constructs Measured
C.10     Implementation Measures and Frequency of Implementation Checks
C.11     Measures Used to Assess Changes in Teacher Behavior or Instructional Practices
C.12     Professional Development, Implementation, and Changes in Classrooms/ Instructional Practices and Children

 

Appendix C.1:
Research Design and Experimental and Control/Comparison Groups
Project Name Research Design/
Details of Randomization
Experimental and Control/Comparison Groups
Curricula Professional Development # of Centers/ Programs # of Classrooms # of Teachers # of Children
Project Upgrade Randomized. E1: Ready, Set, Leap! (plus literacy materials)

E2: Building Early Language and Literacy (plus literacy materials)

E3: Breakthrough to Literacy (plus literacy materials)

C: Existing curricula; package of literacy materials and materials for infant-toddler center OR outdoor play materials

E1-E3: Initial and refresher workshop, coaches N=164:

E1: n=38

E2: n=36

E3: n=36

C: n=55

E1-E3: n=36 or 37

C: n=55

E1-E3: n=36 or 37

C: n=55

E1: n=320

E2: n=340

E3: n=354

C: n=509

Head Start REDI Randomized. Stratified on county location, length of program (full-day, half-day, year-round), student demographics (minority and Spanish-speaking children), and center size. Classrooms in same center randomized to same experimental condition. Recruited over 2 yrs. E: New curriculum integrated into existing curricula. New = Preschool PATHS and language/emergency literacy skills enhancement (interactive reading, sound games, print center). Among programs, 45% were using Creative Curriculum; 55% High/Scope

C: 45% Creative Curriculum; 55% High/Scope

E: 4-6 days per year of workshops or presentations plus 3-day summer workshop monthly visits by supervisor/mentor to provide feedback and monitor teacher adherence to program requirements and individualize goals/action plans plus weekly mentoring, videotaped models to introduce concepts, reflection and problem-solving discussions

C: 4-6 days per year of workshops or presentations; monthly visits by supervisor/mentor to provide feedback and monitor teacher adherence to program requirements and individualize goals/action plans

  E: n=22

C: n=22

E: n=22 teachers, n=21 assistant teachers

C: n=22 teachers, n=22 assistant teachers

N=356
Early Literacy and Learning Model Randomized to E and wait-list C E: Early Language and Literacy Model

C: Locally-accepted curriculum. Creative Curriculum, Beyond Centers and Circle Time, High Reach, or High/Scope*

E: initial summer workshop, coaches, team meetings   N=48 classrooms   N=466:

E: n=222

C: n=244

Language-Focused Curriculum Randomized. E: Language-Focused Curriculum

C: Existing curriculum: High/Scope*

E: Summer 3-day institute on language development and the LFC curriculum

C: Summer 3-day institute on topics such as creative music and movement, behavior management techniques

N=5 E: n=7

C: n=7

E: n=7

C: n=7

E: n=97

C: n=98

Lets Begin with the Letter People/Doors to Discovery Randomized. Randomization by school site. Schools first randomized into curriculum condition, then into mentoring/no mentoring condition. E1: Lets Begin with the Letter People + mentoring

E2: Lets Begin with the Letter People + non-mentoring

E3: Doors to Discovery + mentoring

E4: Doors to Discovery + non-mentoring

C: Variety of classroom curricula and materials

E1-E4: initial 4-day summer workshop

E1 and E3: mentoring 2x month to help with lesson planning, demonstration of curricula, fidelity issues, classroom schedules, behavioral issues, side-by-side coaching on implementation of curricula

E2 and E4: Feedback 3x/year on implementation of curricula

  76 classrooms:

E1: n=12

E2: n=12

E3: n=12

E4: n=13

C: n=27

76 teachers N=603
Literacy Express Randomized trial E1: Literacy Express

E2: Literacy Express

C: High/Scope*

E1: workshops

E2: workshops plus mentoring

C: business as usual

  N=30   N=486
Childrens School Success Randomized cluster design. Randomized by classroom. E: ScienceStart!, 123 Mathematics, ABC Literacy, the Incredible Years, Building Blocks Curriculum Model E1: 3-day initial workshop, plus weekly consultation/support   E: n=10

C: n=10

N=30 (15 in Year 1 and 15 in Year 2) N=809
MyTeachingPartner Whitaker et al (2007); Kinzie et al (2006) Randomized trial. Also, focus groups of some participating teachers E1: MTP Curriculum for Language and Literacy Development, Banking Time, and PATHS curriculum

E2: same

E3: same

E1: Materialscomputer and access to MTP website

E2: Web same as E1, plus printed versions o MTP and PATHS, more resources on web

E3: Consultancy same as E2, plus biweekly on-line chats with consultant and reflection on videotapes of their own teaching practices

    For randomized groups: N=235:

E1: n=66

E2: n=89

E3: n=80

For focus groups:
E1: n=14

E2: n=55

E3: n=42

N=1659 being followed as of Kinzie et al (2006) article
MyTeachingPartner Pianta et al (article and powerpoint) Randomized at district level, stratified by district size (small, medium, and large, defined by the number of classrooms in the preK program) E1: MTP Curriculum for Language and Literacy Development, Banking Time, and PATHS curriculum

E2: same

E1: Web Access teachers: activity descriptions, materials, access to MTP website

E2: Consultancy teachers: same as E1, plus biweekly discussions with teaching consultant

    E1: n=52

E2: n=61

C: n=66

 
Building Language for Literacy Randomized, to assure an equal proportion of Head Start classrooms in E1, E2, and C E1: Building Language for Literacy

E2: Building Language for Literacy

E3: Building Language for Literacy and other curricula

E1: 3-day summer institute, weekly coaching (30 sessions), opportunity to attend evening group meetings for more PD

E2: Same as E1, plus monthly coaching (8 sessions)

C: Existing Montgomery County Public Schools PD: voluntary summer institute for certified teachers, voluntary ½-day summer training for paraeducators, additional professional days during year. Supervisors and content specialists visit classrooms during year and observe and provide PD.

  E1: n=6

E2: n=6

C: n=12

  E1: n=65

E2: n=68

C: n=130

Chicago School Readiness Project Randomized at the preschool site level, with pair-wise matching procedure used on 14 variables. Intent-to-treat analyses E: Modification of The Incredible Years; teacher training plus mental health consultants

C: Teachers aide assigned to classrooms

E: Saturday workshops plus weekly visits by mental health consultants

C: Teachers aide assigned to classroom

E: n=9

C: n=9

E: n=18

C: n=17

E: n=48

C: n=42  

N=602

C: n=206

Getting Ready Single-subject designs (e.g., A/B with follow-up design; reversal or multiple baseline design) (Based on Sheridan et al, 2006) Intervention to help ECE staff and parents work together to improve childrens social-emotional development Initial workshop plus individual and group coaching     N=44 N=50
Pre-K Mathematics Randomized trial. Block randomization: 40 preschool classrooms, with 10 Head Start and 10 state-funded preschools in each of two states) E: PreK Mathematics with DLM Early Childhood Express Math software

C: Various (Creative Curriculum, High/Scope, Montessori, and locally developed curricula)

E: initial workshop and second work shop, and on-site training 6 programs (4 in CA and 2 in NY) N=40:

E: n=20

C: n=20

N=40 N=316:

E: n=159

C: n=157

*SOURCES: All information from submitted articles except items marked with an asterisk. Those items are drawn from 2008 report on PCERS studies, available at: http://ies.ed.gov/ncer/pubs/20082009/pdf/20082009.pdf

 

Appendix C.2:
Content Focus of the Interventions, as Reported in Submitted Studies
Project Name Language/ Literacy Mathematics Science Social-Emotional School Readiness/
Child Development
Parent Involvement
Project Upgrade X          
Head Start REDI X     X    
Early Literacy and Learning Model X          
Language-Focused Curriculum X          
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery X          
Literacy Express X          
Childrens School Success X X X X    
MyTeachingPartner X     X    
Building Language for Literacy X          
Chicago School Readiness Project       X    
Getting Ready         X X
Pre-K Mathematics   X        

 

Appendix C.3:
Training Activities Provided in the Interventions, as Reported in Submitted Studies
Project Name Initial workshop Refresher workshop Ongoing Access to Web-Based Materials Coaches/ Mentors Reflection/ Group Discussion
Project Upgrade Yes (length unspecified) 2 (length unspecified)   Every 2 weeks  
Head Start REDI 3 days (summer) 1 day (midway through year)   Weekly. Avg 3 hr/week visits to classroom, plus 1 hour/ week meeting with teachers and assistant teachers Yes with mentor
Early Literacy and Learning Model 2 days (summer)     Weekly support from literacy coach Monthly site-based literacy team meetings; quarterly regional teacher meetings
Language-Focused Curriculum 3 days (month before school); approximately 15 hrs total 2.5 hours (January)      
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery 4 days (summer)     1.5 hrs (2 times per month)  
Literacy Express X     X (in one condition)  
Childrens School Success 3 days 1 day (1 month later)   Weekly meetings with teachers and teaching assistants); fidelity of treatment measure 7 times/yr  
MyTeachingPartner Depends on specific study: 1.5 day (summer) or training and introductory workshop (fall)   X Depends on condition, but on-line video-chat feedback and consultation in 2-week cycles, repeated during the year  
Building Language for Literacy 3 days for teachers, 2 days for paraeducators (summer)     Monthly or weekly (depending on condition): all-day visits by coaches with private feedback/ discussion Monthly 2-hour evening meetings for additional profess-sional develop-ment and to exchange ideas
Chicago School Readiness Project Invited to participate in 5 trainings on Saturdays, each lasting 6 hours Booster training for new staff (mid-winter)   1 morning/ week in classroom  
Getting Ready Depends on study: 1-3 days Annual booster session   1 hour/ month individual coaching sessions Group coaching: 1.5 2 hrs/month
Pre-K Mathematics 4-day training on units 1-3 4-day training on units 4-7 (winter)   On-site training 2x/month; implementa-tion rating and feedback 1-2x/month  

 

Appendix C.4:
Workplace Characteristics: Auspices/Settings, as Reported in Submitted Studies
Project Name Head Start State Pre-school School District Preschool Private/
Community-based Preschool or Child Care
Title I UPK High School Student Parent Programs Early Head Start (home visits)
Project Upgrade       ?        
Head Start REDI X              
Early Literacy and Learning Model                
Language-Focused Curriculum X X     X      
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery X       X X    
Literacy Express X X            
Childrens School Success X X   X        
MyTeachingPartner   X            
Building Language for Literacy X   X          
Chicago School Readiness Project X              
Getting Ready X           X X
Pre-K Mathematics X X            

Note:  Programs participating in Project Upgrade were described as child care centers that had to serve primarily low-income children, including some whose care was subsidized; and have at least one four-year-old classroom with at least five children. (p. 8)  No additional descriptions of the programs were provided.

 

Appendix C.5:
Workplace Characteristics: Incentives, as Reported in Submitted Studies
Project Name Curricula Materials Training Financial Course Credits Other
Project Upgrade

X

  $500 annual payment for teachers who remained at same center for entire study year    
Head Start REDI     $20 for each observation    
Early Literacy and Learning Model          
Language-Focused Curriculum

X

  Allowance to use for PD opportunities; small account for educational supplies during year    
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery

X

X

    Summary report of language and literacy skills of enrolled children
Literacy Express          
Childrens School Success          
MyTeachingPartner          
Building Language for Literacy     Compensated for attending evening sessions Up to 16 hrs of professional development credit  
Chicago School Readiness Project     $15/hr for participation    
Getting Ready          
Pre-K Mathematics          

Note: This table reports incentives, as they were described by project authors.

 

Appendix C.6:
Recipients of Professional Development Activities, as Reported in Submitted Studies
Project Name Teachers Assistant Teachers/Aides Coaches
Project Upgrade X X  
Head Start REDI X X  
Early Literacy and Learning Model X   X
Language-Focused Curriculum X    
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery X    
Literacy Express X    
Childrens School Success X    
MyTeachingPartner X    
Building Language for Literacy X X (paraeducators)  
Chicago School Readiness Project X X  
Getting Ready X (and home visitors)   X
Pre-K Mathematics X    

 

Appendix C.7:
Teacher Characteristics, as Reported in Submitted Studies
Project Name Race/Ethnicity Language Educational Experience Tenure in Field
Project Upgrade   >1/2 Spanish as primary language; >1/4 spoke English at home; 11% spoke both Spanish and English. Most spoke English only (42%) or mix of English and Spanish (26%) in classroom. 28% no education beyond high school. 14% some college. 58% AA or BA degree. Of post-secondary degrees, >75% from institutions outside US.  
Head Start REDI     Lead teachers (E group): 85% white, 2% black, 1% multi-racial.

Assistant teachers (E group): 91% white, 9% Hispanic

E lead and assistant teachers: 95% English-speaking Lead teachers: 55% in E group had 4-year degree+; 35% had CDA credential; 40% had teaching certificate.

Assistant teachers: 68% in E had high-school or some post-HS education

Lead teachers in E: 75% had 6+ yrs experience;

Assistant teachers in E group: 64% had 6+ years experience

Early Literacy and Learning Model   63% African American   40% E teachers at least 2-yr AA degree Avg: 14 yrs experience working with young children; most with <3.5 yrs in current position.
Language-Focused Curriculum 100% white, non-Hispanic   78% - BA or graduate degree Avg: 11.4 years in the classroom
Lets Begin with the Letter People/Doors to Discovery   Head Start: 71% African American, 13% Hispanic, 6% Caucasian; 10% other; Title I: 100% white; UPK: 84% white, 11% Hispanic, 5% other   Head Start: 6% high school, 39% CDA, 10% 2-year, 39% 4-year, 6% graduate; Title I: 81% 4-year, 19% graduate; UPK: 79% 4-year, 16% graduate.

Head Start: teaching certificate 13%,  SPED 3%, ESL 3%, none 58%; Title I: teaching certificate 92%, SPED 15%, ESL 88%, none 0%; UPK: teaching certificate 84%, SPED 10%, ESL 19%, none 0%

 
Literacy Express        
Childrens School Success        
MyTeachingPartner 72% white, 24% African American, 4% multi-racial   100%, at least BA. 35% with advanced degree. Educational majors: 34% early childhood; 31% elementary; 5% SPED, ESL, CD Avg = 15.9 years
Building Language for Literacy     Lead teachers: Masters degree with specialty in ECE  
Chicago School Readiness Project 70% African-American, 20% Latina, 10% white.   Most with AA or higher, ¼ with high school degree or some college; near 50% with AA degree, nearly ¼ with BA or higher  
Getting Ready 100% white   9% AA degree; 61% BA; 28% MA; 2% doctorate  
Pre-K Mathematics 38% white; 33% African-American, 13% Hispanic, 10% Asian American, 5% interracial/other.   73% BA or higher Avg = 12.4 years experience teaching preschool, with state-funded preschool teachers having more experience (16 yrs) than Head Start teachers (10 years).

 

Appendix C.8:
Characteristics of Coaches/Mentors, as Reported in Submitted Studies
Project Name Demographics Education Experience Supervision
Project Upgrade       On-site coordinators
Head Start REDI     Experienced master teachers 2 project-based senior educational trainers
Early Literacy and Learning Model       ELLM consultants provide TA and support
Language-Focused Curriculum        
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery     Senior-level trainers, intimately familiar with curriculum  
Literacy Express        
Childrens School Success        
MyTeachingPartner        
Building Language for Literacy   MA in reading >20 years experience in providing professional development; extensive experience working in school district  
Chicago School Readiness Project Matched to sites on basis of racial/ethnic and cultural similarity, Spanish proficiency, and judgment of supervisory staff LCSW trainer; MSW mental health consultants Trained using a manualized approach MA-level intervention coordinator
Getting Ready 83% female, 92% white; 8% Hispanic Grad students in school psychology Demonstrated mastery of program model in a training program  
Pre-K Mathematics        

 

Appendix C.9:
Constructs Measured in Submitted Studies
Project Name Implementation Classroom/ Instruction Child Outcomes Parent Outcomes
Project Upgrade X X X  
Head Start REDI X X X  
Early Literacy and Learning Model     X  
Language-Focused Curriculum X X X  
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery X   X  
Literacy Express     X  
Childrens School Success X X X  
MyTeachingPartner X X    
Building Language for Literacy X X X  
Chicago School Readiness Project X X X  
Getting Ready X   X X
Pre-K Mathematics X X X  

 

Appendix C.10:
Implementation Measures and Frequency of Implementation Checks
Project Name Frequency of Implementation Checks Measures of Implementation
Project Upgrade Every 2 weeks (coach visits) Curriculum-specific checklist
Head Start REDI At least monthly Curriculum-specific
Early Literacy and Learning Model Weekly  
Language-Focused Curriculum Observed classrooms 3x yr; teachers sent in lesson plans weekly Curriculum-specific checklist; 50-minute video sample of instruction; assessment of activity contexts and instructional processes
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery 3x/year Curriculum-specific checklist
Literacy Express    
Childrens School Success 7x/year % of curriculum completed; quality of implementation
MyTeachingPartner Ongoing Minutes/month n website, working with on-line consultant; % of teacher-submitted videotapes that included language/literacy or social development activities
Building Language for Literacy Weekly/monthly, depending on experimental condition Curriculum-specific checklist
Chicago School Readiness Project    
Getting Ready Yes frequency unclear Audiotapes of individual/group sessions, coach notes, teacher/provider reports of completion of plan components, fidelity ratings of home visit videos
Pre-K Mathematics 1-2x/month Adherence to schedule of activities; preparation of materials; delivery of small-group math activities; provision of developmental adjustments to individual children; written assessments of individual children; parents self-report on use of home activities; teachers use of DLM Express math software

 

Appendix C.11:
Measures Used to Assess Changes in Teacher Behavior or Instructional Practices
Project Name Measures
Project Upgrade OMLIT, Arnett Caregiver Rating Scale
Head Start REDI CLASS, Teacher Style Rating Scale, Classroom Language and Literacy Environment Observation
Early Literacy and Learning Model Use of language stimulation techniques (LSTs)
Language-Focused Curriculum  
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery CIRCLE- Teacher Behavior Rating Scale
Literacy Express  
Childrens School Success CLASS (1 hr of videotaped observations), ELLCO
MyTeachingPartner CLASS
Building Language for Literacy ELLCO; Ramey & Ramey Observation of Learning Essentials (ROLE)
Chicago School Readiness Project ECERS-R (baseline only), CLASS
Getting Ready  
Pre-K Mathematics Early Mathematics Classroom Observation (EMCO)

 

Appendix C.12
Professional Development, Implementation, and Changes in Classrooms/ Instructional Practices and Children
Project (PI) Initial Workshop Refresher Workshop Coaching/ Mentoring Reflection/ Group Discussion Frequency of Implementation Checks Implementation Fidelity Classroom/ Instructional Quality Child Outcomes Interactions
Project Upgrade (Abt Associates)

X

2

Every 2 weeks

  Every 2 weeks By end of Yr 1: 11-22% of classrooms not implementing at satisfactory level. By end of Yr 2, 3-4 centers per group not implementing at satisfactory level. At end of study: E>C on six constructs related to promoting literacy (support for oral language; print knowledge; print motivation; support for phonological awareness; literacy resources; literacy activities). For 2/3 curricula: E>C on definitional vocabulary, phonological awareness, print knowledge, and early literacy index. Effects on classrooms/instructional practices as strong or stronger for Spanish-dominant than English-dominant teachers. Effects on child outcomes stronger for children in classes with Spanish-dominant teachers, and, to a lesser extent, for children whose home language was Spanish or Haitian Creole (combined group). Small effect for BA degree for some classroom instructional measures, driven by Spanish-speaking teachers.
Head Start REDI (Bierman) 3 days 1 day Weekly yes At least monthly Average ratings of adequate to strong for implementation of PATHS, dialogic reading, alphabet activities, Sound Game activities, and overall REDI program. TSRS: E>C positive emotional climate, classroom management; E=C positive discipline

CLASS: trend, but ns emotional climate, instructional support

E>C for more statements, asking more questions, more decontextualized utterances, richer and more sensitive talk with children.

E>C oral language, social-emotional competence

E>C on two measures of executive function (cognitive performance task and behavioral performance task)

E=C backward word span, peg tapping, Walk-a-Line slowly

Teacher practice correlated with child outcomes, and accounts for 30-77% of intervention effect (depending on child outcome)

REDI intervention effects were as large for assistant teachers as for more highly educated lead teachers.
Early Literacy and Learning Model (Fountain) 2 days   Weekly Monthly, quarterly Weekly     E>C emergent literacy skills Teacher education (BA) predicted student achievement on conventions of print measure, but, more generally, childrens Fall to Spring gains were about equal in magnitude between BA and non-BA ELLM teachers.
Language-Focused Curriculum (Justice) 3 days 2.5 hours     Weekly check-ins (non-observation); observations 3x/yr Teachers submitted average of 39/40 weekly lesson plans (high fidelity), but average use of LSTs by teachers very low, though increased after refresher. On average, more implementation of activity contexts than of instructional processes (e.g., LSTs). E=C on use of language stimulation techniques (LSTs). E=C expressive language skills Children who attended preschool more regularly did better, so child attendance and implementation are both important to figuring out dosage and effects on children.
Lets Begin with the Letter People/ Doors to Discovery (Landry) 4 days   1.5 hrs (2x/mo)   3x/yr High levels of implementation, with growth over time. Better fidelity on Lets Begin than Doors to Discovery   Generally E>C, but interactions. Examples: Language comprehension: Mentored, Title I/D to D classes and non-mentored Title I/Lets Begin classes showed slower growth than C. Greater gains in Head Start classrooms, whether mentored or not, but for other classroom types, curriculum and mentoring mattered.
Literacy Express (Lonigan)

X

 

X (in one condition)

        Mentoring + workshops > workshops only on print knowledge, but not oral language, phonological processing, or cognition  
Childrens School Success (Odom) 3 days 1 day Weekly   7x/yr Better fidelity in Year 2 than Year 1. Coaching associated with better implementation.   Relationship of fidelity with child outcomes varies across variables. Low performers (at baseline) benefit more from high implementation and less for low implementation, with exception of math where there was a strong main effect for quality of implementation. Little relationship between years of teaching and/or degree status and curriculum implementation. Teachers motivation to change is powerful factor in curriculum implementation.
MyTeachingPartner (Pianta) 1.5 days (some articles)   2-week cycles, repeated during the year Ongoing (online) Ongoing (on-line) In one study: over 6 months: average website use of 18 minutes/month for activities, videos, and quality teaching; 43 min/mo for consultancy section. Teachers reported avg of 720 minutes per month for preparing/implementing lessons; 57 min/mo for responding to prompts. Avg of 10 cycles completed/yr. Teachers grew more sensitive in interactions with students, became more adept at engaging students in instruction, improved the quality of their language stimulation techniques.   Consultancy had greater effect on teacher practices in high-poverty classrooms. Even videos (without consultancy) are helpful though. Teachers in high-poverty classrooms accessed more consultancy support.
Building Language for Literacy (Ramey & Ramey) 3 days for teachers; 2 days for para-educators   Weekly (30 sessions) or monthly (8 sessions depending on condition) Monthly Weekly or monthly Monthly coaching > weekly coaching conditions for fidelity. Authors note importance of MIS and monitoring for program quality and improvement. Monthly = weekly coaching on ELLCO E (coaching) conditions > C, on multiple measures, but weekly coaching not always better than monthly  
Chicago School Readiness Project (Raver) 5 trainings x 6 Saturdays (avg 18/30 possible hrs per tchr) Yes Weekly     Average teacher received 18 of 30 possible hrs of initial training; classrooms received avg of 132 hrs of teacher training and mental health consultation. E>C for classrooms positive climate (CLASS); E better than C for negative climate; marginal benefits on teacher sensitivity, trends toward benefits on teachers management of childrens disruptive behavior. No effect of teachers psychosocial stressors on classroom emotional climate. Executive function (C group, preliminary results only) Lower quality social interaction and behavior management in classrooms with less experienced teachers.
Getting Ready (Sheridan) 1-3 days 1/yr 1 hr/mo 1.5-2hrs/mo Yes     Average effect size for all behavioral outcomes in the home was 1.01, and in the school, 1.15.  
Pre-K Mathematics (Starkey) 4 days 4 days 2x/mo   1-2x/mo Overall fidelity scores unrelated to teachers education level and years of preschool teaching experience. E>C for total number of minutes of math support per child per day, for focal math support. E=C for # minutes of embedded math support. No differences due to either teacher education level or amt of preschool teaching experience. E>C for gains in math; E=C for gains in reading skills, language composite, and social skills. Fidelity didnt predict change in child outcomes, but amt of focal math provided did predict child outcome scores. No differences due to program type (Head Start/state preschool; half-day/full-day classes), or teacher education/experience.

 

Endnotes

[1]       At the time publications and reports on these four initiatives were requested from the principal investigators, analyses had not yet been completed for all projects. QUINCE sent no papers to review, and several other projects indicated that additional studies would be forthcoming.

[2]       Study not in the set submitted but used to supplement information.

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