This report has six chapters and an appendix. Chapter 2 presents the findings of our review of the pertinent research literature. This discussion is organized around each of the research questions listed above. Chapter 3 assesses the existing research and identifies, based on both the literature review and the input of the expert panel, the topics for which additional research evidence is most needed. Chapter 4 discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternatives for addressing these needs. These alternatives include new data collection and research based on existing data sets. Chapter 5 examines one of these research options, a survey of employers and labor market intermediaries, in detail. The last chapter summarizes our findings and offers recommendations for future projects. Finally, the appendix summarizes each of the research documents examined in the literature review.
(1) "Welfare-to-work" refers to employment and training services and financial incentives designed to promote the movement of welfare recipients into employment, rather than to specific programs such as the U.S. Department of Labor's Welfare to Work program or the Welfare to Work Voucher program administered by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development.
(2) See U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, Explaining the Decline in Welfare Receipt, 1993-1996, Technical Report (Washington, DC: White House, 1996); and J. P. Ziliak, D. N. Figlio, E. E. David, and L. S. Connolly, "Accounting for the Decline in AFDC Caseloads," Journal of Human Resources, vol. 35, no. 3 (2000).
(3) In most states, a substantial proportion of these job search, placement, and advancement services have been provided through the One-Stop Centers operated under the Work Investment Act (WIA). For discussion, see A. Werner et al., Serving TANF and Low-Income Populations through WIA One-Stop Centers (Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates, 2002).
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