Prevention Makes Common "Cents". Endnotes and References

1. Health Project website: healthproject.stanford.edu/koop. Information presented in the report on notable employee wellness programs was obtained primarily from this website.

2. Table 2-National Health Expenditure Amounts and Average Percent Change by Type of Expenditure: Selected Calendar Years 1980-2012. CMS website/OACT projections (cms.hhs.gov/statistics/nhe/projections-2002/t2.asp).

3. CDC website: www.cdc.gov/nccdphp

4. McGinnis JM. "United States," in Critical Issues in Global Health, ed. C.E. Koop (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001), 80-90.

5. McGinnis JM, Williams-Russo P, Knickman JR. The case for more active policy attention to health promotion. Health Affairs. 2002; 21(2):78-92.

6. Health Project website: healthproject.stanford.edu/koop. Information presented in the report on notable employee wellness programs was obtained primarily from this website.

7. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288(14): 1723-1727.

8. Barnes PM, Schoenborn CA. Physical activity among adults: United States, 2000. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics; no. 333. Hyattsville, Maryland: National Center for Health Statistics. 2003.

9. Mokdad AH, Bowman, BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA 2001; 286(10): 1195-1200.

10. Mokdad AH, Bowman, BA, Ford ES, Vinicor F, Marks JS, Koplan JP. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA 2001; 286(10): 1195-1200.

11. NIH/NHLBI. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. 1998.

12. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2003 Update. American Heart Association: 2003.

13. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288(14): 1723-1727.

14. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks, JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003; 289(1):76-79

15. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288(14): 1723-1727.

16. The prevalence of obesity also varies across States, ranging from a low of 14.4 percent in Colorado to a high of 25.9 percent in Mississippi. (Note: These are relatively low estimates based on self-reported data.) Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks, JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003; 289(1):76-79.

17. Blacks have the highest rate of obesity (31.1 percent) compared with White (19.6 percent) and Hispanic (23.7 percent) populations. A greater proportion of individuals without a high school degree are obese (27.4 percent) compared with those with a college degree (15.7 percent). Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288(14): 1723-1727.

18. Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288(14): 1728-1732.

19. The Surgeon General's call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health. - - Rockville, MD : U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General ; Washington, D.C.

20. Ogden CL, Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Johnson CL. Prevalence and trends in overweight among US children and adolescents, 1999-2000. JAMA 2002; 288(14): 1728-1732.

21. Fisher JO, Rolls BJ, Birch LL. Children's bite size and intake of an entree are greater with large portions than with age-appropriate or self-selected portions. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2003; 77(5):1164-1170.

22. Videon TM, Manning CK. Influences on adolescent eating patterns: The importance of family meals. Journal of Adolescent Health. 2003; 32(5):365-373.

23. The Surgeon General's call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity / Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health. - - Rockville, MD : U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General ; Washington, D.C.

24. Sturm R, Wells KB. Does obesity contribute as much to morbidity as poverty or smoking? Public Health. 2001; 115:229-236.

25. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks, JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003; 289(1):76-79.

26. Prevention Report. USDHHS. 2001; Volume 16:Issue 1

27. Allison DB, Fontaine KR, Manson JE, Stevens J, VanItallie TB. Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States. JAMA. 1999;282(16):1530-1538.

28. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH, Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Among US Adults. JAMA 2002; 287(3): 356-359.

29. Seddon JM, Cote J, Davis N, Rosner B. Progression of age-related macular degeneration: Association with body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio. Archives of Ophthalmology. 2003; 121:785-792.

30. Mokdad AH, Ford ES, Bowman BA, Dietz WH, Vinicor F, Bales VS, Marks, JS. Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001. JAMA. 2003; 289(1):76-79.

31. NHLBI/NIH. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults. 1998.

32. Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IA, Wang G. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who's paying? Health Affairs-Web Exclusive. 2003 Project Hope.

33. The Surgeon General's call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity / Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health. - - Rockville, MD : U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General ; Washington, D.C.

34. CDC website: www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity

35. National Cancer Institute website: cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/3_70.htm

36. Manson JE, Bassuk SS. Obesity in the United States: A fresh look at its high toll. JAMA 2003; 289(2): 229-230.

37. Fontaine KR, Redden DT, Wang C, Westfall AO, Allison DB. Years of life lost due to obesity. JAMA 2003; 289(2): 187-193.

38. Manson JE, Bassuk SS. Obesity in the United States: A fresh look at its high toll. JAMA 2003; 289(2): 229-230.

39. Sturm R. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Health Affairs. 2002; 21(2):245-253.

40. Seidell JC. Societal and personal costs of obesity. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1998; 106 Suppl 2:7-9.

41. Heithoff KA, Cuffel BJ, Kennedy S, Peters J. The association between body mass and health care expenditures. Clinical Therapy. 1997 Jul-Aug; 19(4):811-820.

42. Sturm R. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Health Affairs. 2002; 21(2):245-253.

43. Narbro K, Agren G, Jonsson E, Naslund I, Sjostrom L, Peltonen M. Pharmaceutical costs in obese individuals: Comparison with a randomly selected population sample and long-term changes after conventional and surgical treatment: the SOS intervention study. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2002; 162:2061-2069.

44. Sturm R. The effects of obesity, smoking, and drinking on medical problems and costs. Health Affairs. 2002; 21(2):245-253.

45. Narbro AG, Naslund I, Sjostrom L, Peltonen M. Long-term effects of weight loss on pharmaceutical costs in obese subjects. A report from the SOS intervention study. International Journal of Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders. 2002 Feb; 26(2): 184-192.

46. Narbro K, Agren G, Jonsson E, Naslund I, Sjostrom L, Peltonen M. Pharmaceutical costs in obese individuals: Comparison with a randomly selected population sample and long-term changes after conventional and surgical treatment: the SOS intervention study. Archives of Internal Medicine. 2002; 162:2061-2069.

47. Oster G, Thompson D, Edelsberg J, Bird AP, Colditz GA. Lifetime health and economic benefits of weight loss among obese persons. American Journal of Public Health. 1999 Oct; 89(10):1536-1542.

48. Fultz NH., Fonda SJ, Wheeler LM, Wray LA. Economic cost of obesity to women and men in their 50s and 60s. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, November 19, 2000.

49. The Surgeon General's call to action to prevent and decrease overweight and obesity / Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institutes of Health. - - Rockville, MD : U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Office of the Surgeon General ; Washington, D.C.

50. Douglas BL, Smithline N. Obesity-an overview of an American epidemic. Developed for the Washington Business Group on Health's Summit on Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. December 5, 2002.

51. Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IA, Wang G. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who's paying? Health Affairs-Web Exclusive. 2003 Project Hope.

52. CDC website: www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity

53. NIH/NIDDK website: www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statobes.htm

54. American Obesity Association/The Lewin Group. Costs of Obesity. September 13, 2000.

55. Wang G, Dietz WH. Economic burden of obesity in youths aged 6 to 17 years: 1979-1999. Pediatrics 2002; 45:439-445.

56. Allison DB, Zannolli R, Narayan KM. The direct health care costs of obesity in the United States. American Journal of Public Health. 1999; Vol 89, Issue 8 1194-1199.

57. Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IA, Wang G. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who's paying? Health Affairs-Web Exclusive. 2003 Project Hope.

58. Finkelstein EA, Fiebelkorn IA, Wang G. National medical spending attributable to overweight and obesity: how much, and who's paying? Health Affairs-Web Exclusive. 2003 Project Hope.

59. Burton WN, Chen CY, Schultz AB, Edington DW. The economic costs associated with body mass index in a workplace. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1998 Sep; 40(9):786-792.

60. Tucker LA, Friedman GM. Obesity and absenteeism: an epidemiologic study of 10,825 employed adults. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1998; 12(3):202-207.

61. Narbro K, Agren G, Jonsson E, Larsson B, Naslund I, Wedel H, Sjostrom L. Sick leave and disability pension before and after treatment for obesity: a report from the Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) Study. International Journal of Obesity-Related Metabolic Disorders. 1999 June; 23(6):619-624.

62. NIH/NIDDK website: www.niddk.nih.gov/health/nutrit/pubs/statobes.htm

63. Douglas BL, Smithline N. Obesity-an overview of an American epidemic. Developed for the Washington Business Group on Health's Summit on Obesity, Cardiovascular Disease and Diabetes. December 5, 2002.

64. Thompson D, Edelsberg J, Kinsey KL, Oster G. Estimated economic costs of obesity to U.S. business. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1998; 13(2):120-127.

65. NIDDK. General Information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2000 (Note: Similar information is found in the American Diabetes Association, "National Diabetes Fact Sheet.

66. NIDDK. General Information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2000 (Note: Similar information is found in the American Diabetes Association, "National Diabetes Fact Sheet.

67. CDC. Diabetes at a Glance

68. NIDDK "General Information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2000 (Note: Similar information is found in the American Diabetes Association, "National Diabetes Fact Sheet. This number was updated for 2002 to 12.1 million diagnosed cases. "Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2002." See discussion under Costs Associated with Diabetes.

69. A recent study of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination surveys (NHANES) found that the prevalence of diabetes, either diagnosed or undiagnosed, and impaired fasting glucose did not appear to increase substantially during the 1990's. CDC. Prevalence of Diabetes and Impaired Fasting Glucose in Adults-United States, 1999-2000. MMWR. September 5, 2003; 52(35):833-837.

70. NIDDK. General Information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2000 (Note: Similar information is found in the American Diabetes Association, "National Diabetes Fact Sheet.

71. J Pediatr Endocrinal Metab. Emergence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children: epidemiological evidence. 13 Suppl 6:1395-402, 2000.

72. NIDDK. General Information and national estimates on diabetes in the United States, 2000 (Note: Similar information is found in the American Diabetes Association, "National Diabetes Fact Sheet.

73. American Diabetes Association: Economic consequences of diabetes mellitus in the U.S. in 1997. Diabetes Care 21:296-309, 1998

74. www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheets/atwork.htm

75. American Diabetes Association: Economic costs of diabetes in the U.S. in 2002. Diabetes Care 26(3):917-932, 2003.

76. CDC. Preventing Heart Disease and Stroke: Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers 2003. ndep.nih.gov/get-info/dpc.htm#basis

77. www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheets/atwork.htm

78. Sprague, L. "Disease Management to Population-Based Health: Steps in the Right Direction?" NHPF Issue Brief No.791, Washington, DC. May 16, 2003.

79. Javitt JC, Aiello LP. Cost effectiveness of detecting and treating diabetic retinopathy. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124:164-169.

80. Baker S. et al "challenges of Changing Health Behavior in Medically Underserved Communities. The Link. Volume 14, No. 2 -- Fall 2000

81. Tsao, Amy, Managing Illness by Phone and E-Mail. Business Week online, May 15, 2002, New York, McGraw Hill.

82. NHPF-op cit.

83. Improving Chronic Disease Management: A Compelling Business Case for Diabetes, Report from the Diabetes Working Group of the British Columbia Ministry of Health Planning and the British Columbia Ministry of Health Services, prepared by Deborah Shera, Sierra Systems. September 23, 2002

84. Beaulieu, ND et al. The Business Case for Diabetes Disease Management at Two Managed Care Organizations: A Case Study. The Commonwealth Fund. April 2003

85. Preventing Heart Disease and Stroke: Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers. CDC: April 2002.

86. Cardiovascular Diseases. Stanford Health Library: 2002.

87. American Heart Association. Heart and Stroke Statistics-2003 Update.

88. Rates of death were 29 percent higher among black Americans compared to white Americans at 509.6 per 100,000 males and 397.1 per 100,000 females. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2003 Update. American Heart Association: 2003.

89. The CHD death rates were 262.4 per 100,000 black males and 187.5 per 100,000 population for black females (compared to 238.0 per 100,000 and 145.3 per 100,000 white males and females, respectively).Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2003 Update. American Heart Association: 2003.

90. Preventing Heart Disease and Stroke: Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers. CDC: April 2002.

91. Preventing Heart Disease and Stroke: Addressing the Nation's Leading Killers. CDC: April 2002.

92. The prevalence rates for CVD are as follows: Non-Hispanic white men: 30 percent; Non-Hispanic white women: 24 percent; Non-Hispanic black men: 41 percent; Non-Hispanic black women: 40 percent; Mexican-American men: 29 percent; Mexican-American women: 27 percent. Heart Facts 2002: All Americans. American Heart Association: 2002.

93. Cardiovascular Diseases. Stanford Health Library: 2002

94. Sixth Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. NHLBI: 1994.

95. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Vol. 49, No. 33. CDC/NCHS: Aug 25, 2000.

96. American Heart Association. Heart and Stroke Statistics-2003 Update.

97. American Heart Association. Heart and Stroke Statistics-2003 Update.

98. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. CDC/NCHS: 1994.

99. Pate RR et al. Physical Activity and Public Health. A Recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA 1995; 273:402-407.

100. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2001 Update. American Heart Association: 2001.

101. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2002 Update. American Heart Association: 2002.

102. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2003 Update. American Heart Association: 2003.

103. National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. CDC/NCHS: 2000.

104. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2003 Update. American Heart Association: 2003.

105. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics - 2003 Update. American Heart Association: 2003.

106. Oster G and Thompson D. Estimated effects of reducing dietary saturated fat intake on the incidence and costs of coronary heart disease in the United States. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Feb 1996; 96(2): 127-131.

107. Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

108. A disparity between blacks and whites was evident, with a current prevalence rate 22.7 percent higher for blacks than for whites. Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

109. Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

110. Action Against Asthma. A Strategic Plan for the Department of Health and Human Services. aspe.hhs.gov/sp/asthma/ May 2000.

111.Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

112. Weiss KB, Gergen PJ, Hodgson TA. An economic evaluation of asthma in the United States. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:862-6.

113. Chestnut L, Mills D, Agras J. National Costs of Asthma for 1997. Prepared for US Environmental Protection Agency by Stratus Consulting Inc. August 2000.

114. Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

115. Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

116. Weiss KB, Gergen PJ, Hodgson TA. An economic evaluation of asthma in the United States. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:862-6.

117. Paralleling the disparity in asthma prevalence, rates of death, hospitalization, and emergency department visits are 2-3 times higher for black Americans than for white Americans. Redd SC. Asthma in the United States: burden and current theories. Environ Health Perspect 2002 Aug; 110 Suppl 4:557-60.

118. Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

119. Trends in Asthma Morbidity and Mortality. American Lung Association Epidemiology & Statistics Unit. March 2003.

120. Weiss KB, Gergen PJ, Hodgson TA. An economic evaluation of asthma in the United States. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:862-6.

121. Birnbaum HG, Berger WE, Greenberg PE, Holland M, Auerbach R, Atkins KM, Wanke LA. Direct and indirect costs of asthma to an employer. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002 Feb; 109(2):264-70.

122. Platts-Mills TA, Carter MC, Heyman PW. Specific and nonspecific obstructive lung disease in childhood: causes of changes in the prevalence of asthma. Environmental Health Perspectives 2000; 108 Suppl 4: 725-31.

123. Chestnut L, Mills D, Agras J. National Costs of Asthma for 1997. Prepared for US Environmental Protection Agency by Stratus Consulting Inc. August 2000.

124. The Health Consequences of Smoking: Nicotine Addiction: A Report of the Surgeon General"(1988).

125. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nation's Leading Cause of Death, At a Glance 2003, www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_osh.htm

126. SAMHSA. Summary of Findings from the 2001 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Volume 11. Technical Appendices and Selected Data Tables. Office of Applied Studies, NHSDA Series H-18; DHHS Publication Number SMA02-3759. Rockville, MD.

127. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Report Series: Nicotine Addiction. NIH Publication No. 01-4342, August, 2001; 1-8.

128. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Summary, June 2000. U.S. Public Health Service. www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/smokerssum.htm

129. Kuper H, Boffetta P, Adami H. Tobacco Use and Cancer Causation: Association by Tumour Type. Journal of Internal Medicine. September 2002; 252(3):206-224.

130. Alberg A, Samet J. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer. Chest. January 2003; 123(1) 21S-49S.

131. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nation's Leading Cause of Death, At a Glance 2003, www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_osh.htm

132. US Department of Health and Human Services, Preventing Tobacco Use Among Young People: A Report of the Surgeon General, (1994).

133. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Targeting Tobacco Use: The Nation's Leading Cause of Death, At a Glance 2003, www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/aag/aag_osh.htm

134. World Health Organization, "Combating the Tobacco Epidemic." The World Health Report, 1999. Geneva: The World Health Organization

135. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Preventing Tobacco Use, www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/pe_tobacco.htm (Last update February 19, 2003).

136. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Report Series: Nicotine Addiction. NIH Publication No. 01-4342, August, 2001; 1-8.

137. Max W. The financial impact of smoking on health-related costs: a review of the literature. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001; 15(5):321-331.

138. CDC. Annual Smoking -Attributable Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Economic Costs, United States, 1995 -1999. MMWR April 12, 2002; 51(14).

139. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,Preventing Tobacco Use, www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/pe_tobacco.htm (Last update February 19, 2003).

140. Zhang, X. et al., Cost of Smoking to the Medicare Program, 1993.

141. National Cancer Institute, Questions and Answers About the Benefits of Smoking Cessation, March 31, 2000, www.cis.nci.nih.gov/fact.

142. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Summary, June 2000. U.S. Public Health Service. www.surgeongeneral.gov/tobacco/smokerssum.htm

143. California Department of Health Services Tobacco Control Section. California Tobacco Control Update. August 2000; 1-9.

144. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Preventing Tobacco Use, www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/pe_factsheets/pefs_tobacco.pdf.

145. Health Project website: healthproject.stanford.edu/koop. Information presented in the report on notable employee wellness programs was obtained primarily from this website.

146. The inclusion of these specific companies' programs does not indicate any endorsement by the Department of Health and Human Services.

147. Riedel JE, Lynch W, Baase C, Hymel P, Peterson KW. The effect of disease prevention and health promotion on workplace productivity: a literature review. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001; 15(3): 167-191.

148. Heaney CA, Goetzel RZ. A review of health-related outcomes of multi-component worksite health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1997;11(4):290-308.

149. Ozminkowski RJ, Ling D, Goetzel RZ, Bruno JA, Rutter KR, Isaac F, Wang S. Long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health & wellness program on health care utilization and expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002; 44:21-29.

150. Christensen R. Employment-based health promotion and wellness programs. Employee Benefit Research Institute. 2001 (July); 22(7):1-6.

151. Department of Labor. National Compensation Survey: Employee Benefits in Private Industry in the United States, 2000. January 2003.

152. Christensen R. Employment-based health promotion and wellness programs. Employee Benefit Research Institute. 2001 (July); 22(7):1-6.

153. Anderson DR, Serxner SA, Gold DB. Conceptual framework, critical questions, and practical challenges in conducting research on financial impact of worksite health promotion. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001 (May/June); 15(5):281-288.

154. Riedel JE, Lynch W, Baase C, Hymel P, Peterson KW. The effect of disease prevention and health promotion on workplace productivity: a literature review. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001; 15(3): 167-191.

155. Pelletier KR. A review and analysis of the health and cost-effective outcome studies of comprehensive health promotion and disease prevention programs at the worksite: 1993-1995 update. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1996; 10(5):380-388.

156. Chapman LS. Meta-evaluation of worksite health promotion economic return studies. The Art of Health Promotion. 2003(February);6(6):1-10.

157. Aldana SG. Financial impact of health promotion programs: a comprehensive review of the literature. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2001;15(5):296-320.

158. Heaney CA, Goetzel RZ. A review of health-related outcomes of multi-component worksite health promotion programs. American Journal of Health Promotion. 1997;11(4):290-308.

159. Goetzel RZ, Juday TR, Ozminkowski RJ. What's the ROI? A systematic review of return-on-investment studies of corporate health and productivity management initiatives. AWHP's Worksite Health. 1999;6(3):12-21.

160. Goetzel RZ, Juday TR, Ozminkowski RJ. What's the ROI? A systematic review of return-on-investment studies of corporate health and productivity management initiatives. AWHP's Worksite Health. 1999;6(3):12-21.

161. Goetzel RZ, Juday TR, Ozminkowski RJ. What's the ROI? A systematic review of return-on-investment studies of corporate health and productivity management initiatives. AWHP's Worksite Health. 1999;6(3):12-21.

162. Ozminkowski RJ, Ling D, Goetzel RZ, Bruno JA, Rutter KR, Isaac F, Wang S. Long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health & wellness program on health care utilization and expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002; 44:21-29.

163. Ozminkowski RJ, Ling D, Goetzel RZ, Bruno JA, Rutter KR, Isaac F, Wang S. Long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health & wellness program on health care utilization and expenditures. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002; 44:21-29.

View full report

Preview
Download

"prevention.pdf" (pdf, 1.14Mb)

Note: Documents in PDF format require the Adobe Acrobat Reader®. If you experience problems with PDF documents, please download the latest version of the Reader®