Pre-Application Activities of Social Security Disability Insurance Applicants. References

04/01/2014

REFERENCES

Daly, M.C. "Characteristics of SSI and DI recipients in the years before receiving benefits." In Growth in Disability Benefits, edited by K. Rupp and D.C. Stapleton. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, 1998.

Honeycutt, T. "Program and benefit paths to the Social Security Disability Insurance program." Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 21(2), 2004, pp. 83-94.

Linder, S. "From working to applying: Employment transitions of applicants for disability insurance in the United States." Journal of Social Policy, 42(2), pp. 329-348, 2013.

Livermore, G., D. Stapleton, and H. Claypool. "Health care when workers needed it most: Before and after entry into the Social Security insurance program." Inquiry, 47, pp. 135-149, 2010.

Thompkins, A., T. Honeycutt, C. Gill, J. Mastrianni, and M. Bailey. "To Apply or Not To Apply: The Employment and Program Participation Experiences of Social Security Disability Insurance Applicants and Non-Applicants." Washington, DC: Mathematica Policy Research, DRC Working Paper Series, forthcoming.

TABLE 1. Employment and Income Characteristics of SSDI Applicants
  Months Before SSDI Application Difference Between
37-42 Months &
1-6 Months
Before Application
  All Individuals  
Ages 25-55
37-42 31-36 25-30 19-24 13-18 7-12 1-6
Labor Force Participation
   Any employment 88.5% 87.5% 83.6% 81.0% 79.0% 76.7%* 66.4%** -25% 84.0%
   Without a job/ not looking for work 17.9% 20.2% 23.4% 24.9% 29.1% 34.6%* 54.1%** 202% 16.7%
Monthly Income (mean)
   Individual earned income $1,887 $1,865 $1,656 $1,531 $1,507 $1,356* $944** -50% $2,727
   Individual earned income for those with income $2,364 $2,309 $2,204 $2,080 $2,151 $2,082 $1,941 -18% $3,399
   Individual total income $2,068 $2,071 $1,860 $1,766 $1,767 $1,699 $1,396* -32% $2,892
   Household total income $3,923 $4,351 $4,047 $3,889 $3,776 $3,637 $3,359 -14% $5,783
   Federal poverty level 24.0% 22.4% 25.8% 25.9% 29.1% 33.0% 40.4%* 68% 13.4%
Unweighted Sample Size 204 376 626 856 1,045 1,202 1,335   127,972
Unweighted Sample Size (for individual earned income of those with earnings)   183 323 515 689 822 904 841   104,834
Weighted Sample Size (average per panel)   173,487     322,895     556,766     762,919     939,560     1,094,278     1,219,322       121,410,365  
SOURCE: 1996, 2001, and 2004 SIPP panels matched to SSA administrative data.
NOTES: Table shows employment and income characteristics of SSDI applicants at 6-month intervals before they applied for benefits. Income statistics adjusted to 2004 dollars using the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers. Statistics for "all individuals ages 25-55" are for individuals ages 25-55 in wave 1 of each SIPP panel, regardless of disability, SSDI, or at-risk group status. Statistics for each 6-month period were compared with those for the 37-42 month period using t-tests.

* p<0.05; ** p<0.01.

TABLE 2. Program Participation of SSDI Applicants
  Months Before SSDI Application All Individuals
Ages 25-55
37-42 31-36 25-30 19-24 13-18 7-12 1-6
Poverty-Related Benefits
   SNAP 10.2%* 12.6%* 10.7%** 12.4%* 13.2%* 15.2% 21.1% 4.0%**
   Energy assistance 4.1% 5.6% 5.1% 5.7% 5.2% 5.4% 7.6% 2.1%**
   Subsidized housing 2.8% 3.4% 2.7% 2.3% 1.7% 2.2% 2.8% 1.2%
   Temporary Assistance for Needy Families 3.7% 2.9% 2.6% 2.2% 2.9% 3.6% 4.7% 1.2%*
Disability-Related Benefits
   SSI 0.5% 0.3% 0.5% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9% 1.0% 1.1%
   Employer-based disability insurance 0.0%** 0.0%** 0.7%** 0.8%** 1.1%** 2.7% 6.5% 0.2%**
   Own sickness or accident insurance 0.0%* 0.3% 0.2%* 0.4% 0.4% 1.2% 2.1% 0.0%*
   Workers' compensation 4.1% 3.9%* 1.7%** 2.6%** 4.4%* 5.6% 9.3% 0.4%**
Health Coverage
   Medicaid 10.6%* 11.9%* 12.1%* 11.8%* 13.8% 15.9% 20.4% 6.1%**
   Private health insurance 72.9% 72.0% 70.3% 71.1% 67.5% 67.4% 66.7% 77.9%**
Employment-Related Benefits
   Unemployment benefits 7.5% 5.7% 6.4% 7.2% 5.4% 5.9% 7.5% 2.4%**
   Veterans benefits' 1.7% 1.9% 3.4% 3.6% 3.7% 3.3% 3.2% 0.7%*
Unweighted Sample Size 204 376 626 856 1,045 1,202 1,335 127,972
Weighted Sample Size(average per panel)   173,487     322,895     556,766     762,919     939,560     1,094,278     1,219,322     121,410,365  
SOURCE: 1996, 2001, and 2004 SIPP panels matched to SSA administrative data.
NOTES: Program participation of SSDI applicants at 6-month intervals before they applied for benefits shown in table. The statistics for "all individuals ages 25-55" are for individuals ages 25-55 in wave 1 of each SIPP panel, regardless of disability, SSDI application, or at-risk group status. The table includes 2 types of comparisons: (1) statistics for each 6-month period were compared with those for the period 1-6 months before SSDI application; and (2) statistics for the period 1-6 months before SSDI application were compared with those for individuals ages 25-55. Both comparisons used t-test statistics.

* p<0.05; ** p<0.01.


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