Positive Youth Development in the United States: Research Findings on Evaluations of Positive Youth Development Programs. I: Effective Programs in Three Social Domains

11/13/1998

Program Description Sample Description Study
Publication Date / Author(s) / Program Location / Size Age / Grade / Gender / Ethnicity Program Description Design PYD Constructs Domain(s) Outcomes
1996

LoSciuto, Rajala, Townsend & Taylor

Across Ages

2 public middle schools in Philadelphia, PA

n = 562
(individual)

6th grade

M=47%
F=53%

AfrAm=52.2%
As=9.1%
Lat=9%
Cauc=15.8%

Exposure: 2 hrs per wk (mentoring), 1 hr every 2 wks (community service), 26 1-hour sessions (social problem solving) over one school year

Content: Intergenerational mentoring, community service activities, parent involvement

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, bonding, resiliency, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behavior, positive identity, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and prosocial norms Family, School and Community Increases in positive attitudes and/or knowledge of school, the future, older people and community service

Decrease in days absent from school

1995

Andrews, Soberman & Dishion

Adolescent Transitions

Oregon

n = 143 (families)

n = 158 (youth)

10-14 yrs

6-8th grade

M=83
F=75

Cauc=95%
unspec=5%

Exposure: 12 sessions over 18 hrs

Content: Youth and parent skills training for self and family management

Experimental Social, cognitive, and behavioral competencies, bonding, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behaviors, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and prosocial norms Family, School and Community Increase in social learning (youth)

Decreases in negative engagement with family, conflict, negative family events, youth aggression

1989

Pentz, Dwyer et al.

1994

Pentz, Dwyer, Johnson, Flay, Hansen, MacKinnon, Chow, Rohrbach & Montgomery

Midwestern Prevention Project­Project STAR­Kansas (MPP)

Public middle/junior high schools in Kansas City, MO

n = 4153 
(individual­avg per year)

6-7th grade 

Cauc=76.6%
AfrAm=19.2%

M=50.7%
F=60.9%

Exposure: 10-session school program; 10 hours of homework activities with parents; community organizing; mass media coverage

Content: Parent and youth education and skills training, community organization

Quasi­experimental (partial randomized control trial) Social, emotional, and behavioral competencies, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behaviors, bonding, and prosocial norms Family, School and Community Through 3-year follow-up:
Decreases in the monthly, weekly and heavy use of cigarettes, marijuana and alcohol

Through 5-year follow­up:
Lower levels of monthly drug use, weekly cigarette smoking

1996

Perry, Williams, Veblen­Mortenson, Toomey, Komro, Anstine, McGovern, Finnegan, Forster, Wagenaar & Wolfson

Project Northland

20 schools in northeastern Minnesota

n = 1901
(individual)

6-8th grade 

Cauc=94%
NatAm=4.5%

Exposure: Weekly activities and/or training over 3 years

Content: Youth skills and parent competence training, community organization

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, bonding, self­efficacy, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and prosocial norms Family, School and Community Increases in parent­youth communication, knowledge & attitudes for resisting peer influence, self­efficacy

Decreases in alcohol use, cigarettes and marijuana for subgroups by previous risk level; in alcohol for full sample

1998, 1997
 

Farrell & Meyer
 

Richmond Youth Against Violence Project /Responding in Peaceful and Positive Ways

3 urban middle schools in Richmond, VA

n = 579 (1998 evaluation)

n= 452 (1997 evaluation)

(individual)

6th grade 

AfrAm=96%
unspec=4%

Exposure: 25 sessions over the school year

Content: Violence prevention and health promotion curriculum, parent training

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and moral competencies, bonding, prosocial norms, self­efficacy, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and recognition for positive behavior Family, School and Community Posttests:
Increases in RIPP knowledge, use of school mediation program

Decreases in fighting, carrying weapons, rates of in­school suspensions

Six-month follow-up:
Significant changes in knowledge, violent behavior, suppression of anger, frequency of hitting a teacher, school suspensions; (for boys) impulse control, drug use, skipping school; (for girls) problem solving

1992

Cardenas, Montecel, Supik & Harris

Valued Youth Partnership

San Antonio, TX

n = 194
(individual)

12 yrs

Hisp=61/69%
Cauc=2/0%
unspec=37/37%

Exposure: 30 sessions over school year, 4 hrs per week of tutoring

Content: Peer tutoring, stipends, leadership training, parent & business community involvement

Quasi­experimental Social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, bonding, recognition for positive behavior, positive identity, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and prosocial norms Family, School and Community Increases in reading grades, positive self­concept, positive attitudes toward school

Decrease in school drop­out rates

1997

LoSciuto, Freeman, Altman & Lanphear

Woodrock

Philadelphia, PA

n = 367
(individual)

6-14 yrs

M=53.1%
F=46.9%

Lat=44.4%
Cauc=19.9%
AfrAm=11.4%
As=11.2%
Other=9.3%
NatAm=1.9%

Exposure: Weekly classes (skills for human relations), daily mentoring, weekly participation in activities, regular but unspec. amount of home visits and contacts

Content: Social competence promotion, life skills, human relations classes, peer mentoring, extracurricular activities, parent training and involvement

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral competencies, bonding, resilience, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behaviors, prosocial norms, positive identity, and opportunities for prosocial involvement Family, School and Community Increases in positive race relations

Decreases in drug use for past year (younger sub­group) & past month (older & younger sub­groups)

Outcomes in wrong direction for one sub­group (older), on attitudes toward drug use

1996

Johnson, Strader, Berbaum, Bryant, Bucholtz, Collins & Noe

Creating Lasting Connections

5 church communities in Louisville, KT

n = 217
(individual)

12-14 years

Cauc=77%
AfrAm=23%

Exposure:  6, 2.5 hour sessions totaling 15 hours (youth); 22 sessions totaling 55 hours (parents); 7, 2.5 hour sessions totaling 18 hours (volunteer service providers); follow-up consultation and support for 1 year

Content: Community, parent and child strategies to promote communication and self­management skills

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and moral competencies, bonding, resiliency, self­efficacy, spirituality, recognition for positive behavior, positive identity, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and self­determination Family, Church and Community Increases in youth use of community services, related action tendencies, perceived helpfulness

Interaction Effects: Onset of substance abuse delayed as parents changed their substance use beliefs and knowledge

1994

Hahn, Leavitt & Aaron

Quantum Opportunities Program

Philadelphia, PA

n = 170
(individual)

9-12th 

M=48%
F=52%

AfrAm=75%
Cauc=14%
Hisp=7%
As=1%
Other=2%

Exposure: 1300 hours over 4 year program period

Content: Education activities, peer tutoring, community service activities, mentoring, life and family skills

Experimental Social, emotional, behavioral and cognitive competencies, bonding, resiliency, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behaviors, positive identity, opportunities for prosocial involvement, prosocial norms, self­determination, and belief in the future School, Community and Work Increases in high school graduation rates, in college or post­secondary school attendance, honors and awards