Positive Youth Development in the United States: Research Findings on Evaluations of Positive Youth Development Programs. H: Effective Programs in Two Social Domains

11/13/1998

Program Description Sample Description Study
Publication Date / Author(s) / Program Location / Size Age / Grade / Gender / Ethnicity Program Description Design PYD Constructs Domain(s) Outcomes
1996

Battistich, Schaps, Watson & Solomon

The Child Development Project

24 elementary schools from 6 school districts (12 on West Coast, 4 in the South, 4 in the Southeast, 4 in Northeast) 

n = 1645 (individual)

11-12 years 

3-6th grades

M=48%

F=52%

Varying ethnicity over 3 year period: Cauc=39-54%

AfrAm=17-23%

Hisp=21-27%

As=5-10%

Other=2-3%

Exposure: Integrated curriculum over school year

Content: Cooperative learning, reading and language arts, developmental discipline, school community building, homeside activities

Quasi­experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and moral competencies, bonding, resiliency, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behavior, positive identity, opportunities for prosocial involvement, prosocial norms, and self­determination Family and School Increases in peer social acceptance

Decreases in alcohol & tobacco use, loneliness & social anxiety

High implementation sub­group:

Decreases in marijuana use, carrying weapons, vehicle theft

1998

Greenberg
 

1997

CPPRG
 

Fast Track

Durham, NC Nashville, TN Seattle, WA Rural PA 

n = 898 (individual, high risk sample) 

n = 385 (classrooms, full study)

1-3rd grade

M=66% F= 34%

Ethnicity

AfrAm=50% Others = 50%

Exposure: 57, tri­weekly PATHS lessons plus parent­child training over 3 years

Content: PATHS curriculum plus 6 individualized components for high­risk sample

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral competencies, resiliency, bonding, recognition for positive behavior, opportunities for prosocial involvement, prosocial norms Family and school Increases in accepting authority, liking, positive classroom atmosphere, appropriate expression of feelings, staying on task

Decreases in aggression, hyperactivity (full study); disruptive behavior at school, conduct problems at home (high­risk sample)

1997

Eron, Guerra, Henry, Huesmann, Tolan & Van Acker

Metropolitan Area Child Study

Chicago and Aurora, Illinois 

n = 3599 (individual)

2-6th grades

 

AfrAm=40%

Hisp=40%

Cauc=20%

Exposure: 40 one­hour sessions over 2 years 

Content: Social­cognitive curriculum, behavior management, family cohesiveness

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and moral competencies, bonding, resiliency, self­efficacy, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and prosocial norms Family and School Increase in prosocial behavior (sub­group)

Decrease in aggressive behavior (sub­group)

Results in wrong direction for one sub­group (sub­groups are by aggression level co­variate)

1991

Kirby, Barth, Leland & Fetro

Reducing the Risk

13 urban and rural schools in California 

n = 1033 (individual)

10th grade 

M=47%
F=53%
 

Cauc=62%
Lat=20%
As=9%
NatAm=2%
AfrAm=2%
Unspec=5%

Exposure: 15 class periods plus unspecified parent­child periods 

Content: cognitive­behavioral, teacher & peer role modeling, parent involvement

Quasi­experimental Social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, self­efficacy, opportunities for prosocial involvement, prosocial norms, and self­determination Family and School Posttests 
Increases in knowledge and communication with parents about contraception and abstinence, changes in normative beliefs

Follow-Up
Decreases in rates of initiation of intercourse, in unprotected intercourse

1998­under review 

Hawkins, Catalano, Kosterman, Abbott & Hill

The Seattle Social Development Project

18 Seattle elementary schools 

n = 643 (individual)

1-5th grades 

M=47-53%
F=53-47%

Cauc=42-46%
AfrAm=21-30%
As=18-24%
NatAm=3-7%
Other=1-5%

Exposure: 7 sessions in 1-2nd grade, 4 sess. in 2-3rd grades, 5 sess. in 5-6th grades, 4 sess. in 6th grade

Content: Training for teachers and parents, social competence promotion for children

Quasi­experimental Social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, bonding, opportunities for prosocial involvement, recognition for positive behavior, and prosocial norms Family and School Follow-Up (6 years from posttests)
Increases in attachment/bonding to school, achievement 

Decreases in school misbehavior, rate of violent acts, alcohol use in past year, sexual intercourse, multiple sex partners

1998

Weissberg & Caplan 

The Social Competence Promotion Program for Young Adolescents

4 urban multi­ethnic middle schools in New Haven, CT

n = 421 (individual)

5-8th grade 

M=210
F=211

Cauc=178
AfrAm=167
Hisp=72
Other=4

Exposure: 16 45-minute sessions over 12 weeks; teacher and aide training, consultation and coaching

Content: Social competence promotion, family involvement

Quasi­experimental Social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, bonding, prosocial norms, self efficacy, recognition for positive behavior, and resilience Family and School Increases in peer involvement, social acceptance, problem­solving, use of conflict resolution strategies, positive solutions

Decreases in aggressive and passive solutions

1996 

Slavin, Madden, Dolan & Wasik

Success for All

23 elementary schools in various states, with 55 each, experimental and control cohorts (each cohort = 50 - 150 students) 

n = 110 (cohorts)

K-5th grade 

AfrAm = Majority (% not specified)

Exposure: Daily immersion in SFA reading curricula, 20-minute tutoring sessions, daily 90-minute enhanced (Age grouping) reading periods, assessments every 8 wks, family involvement

Content: Cognitive competence, reading achievement, tutoring, parenting skills

Quasi­experimental Social, cognitive and behavioral competencies, bonding, opportunities for positive involvement, and recognition for positive behavior change Family and School Increases in reading competence

Decreases in students being retained a grade

1996

Allan, Philliber, Herrling & Kuperminc

Teen Outreach

25 schools nationwide 

n = 695
(individual)

10th grade

M=14/17%
F=86/83%

Cauc=17/20%
AfrAm=68/66%
His=13/10%
Other=2/3%

Exposure: 45 hrs of volunteer service annually, weekly classroom discussions and activities throughout the school year 

Content: Community­based volunteer activities, skills training, tutoring

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and moral competencies, bonding, self­efficacy, opportunities for prosocial involvement, prosocial norms, positive identity, belief in future, and self­determination School and Community Decreases in school failure, school suspension, and teen pregnancy