Positive Youth Development in the United States: Research Findings on Evaluations of Positive Youth Development Programs. G: Effective Programs in One Social Domain

11/13/1998

Program Description

Sample Description

Study

Publication Date / Author(s) / Program Location / Size Age / Grade / Gender / Ethnicity Program Description Design PYD Constructs Domain(s) Outcomes
1988

Schinke, Botvin, Trimble, Orlandi, Gilchrist & Locklear

Bicultural Competence Skills
 

Western Washington State

n = 137

(individual)

11-12 years 

NatAm = 100%

Exposure:  10 sessions

Content: Skills training to promote competence and positive identity based on bicultural fluency

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and moral competencies, positive identity, bonding, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behavior, opportunities for prosocial involvement, prosocial norms Community Increases(posttests & 6-month follow-up) in self-control, assertiveness, healthy coping, substance abuse knowledge

Decreases(posttests& 6-month follow-up) in alcohol, tobacco and other drug (ATOD) use

1995

Tierney, Grossman & Resch

Big Brothers/Big Sisters

Phoenix, Wichita, Minneapolis, Rochester, Columbus, Philadelphia, Houston and San Antonio 

n = 959

(individual)

10-14 years 

60% = combined

total AfrAm & Hisp 

40% = unspec

Exposure: 9-12 hours per month for 11 months 

Content:  Activities with mentor

Experimental Promotion of social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, positive identity, bonding, resiliency, self­efficacy, and prosocial norms Community Increases in ability to complete school work, parental trust, cognitive competence, peer support, social acceptance

Decreases in drug use, hitting, skipping class or day of school, lying to parents

1989

Walter, Vaughan & Wynder

Know Your Body

New York, NY 

n = 593 (individual)

n=15 (schools)

4th-9th grade

Cauc=79.3%

AfrAm=13.8%

Hisp=2.2%

Asian=4.7%

Exposure: 2 hours/wk for 6 years

Content: Health promotion

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral competencies, self­efficacy, recognition for positive behavior, positive identity, and prosocial norms School Increase in healthy dietary patterns

Decrease in smoking initiation

1985

Connell & Turner

1985

Connell, Turner & Mason

1992

Smith, Redican & Olson

Growing Healthy (a/k/a School Health Curriculum Project)

20 states: 1 mid­Eastern urban district; 1 mid­Southern suburban district; 2 Western rural districts 

n = 1397 (individual)

4-7th grade 

M=50.3%

F=49.7%

Cauc=57%

AfrAm=40%

Hisp=1.5%

Unspec=1.5%

Exposure: 43-56 lessons over 1 or 2 years (depending on experimental condition) 

Content: Health competence promotion

Quasi­experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral competencies, self­efficacy, opportunities for prosocial involvement, recognition for positive behavior, positive identify, and prosocial norms School Increases in positive knowledge and attitudes toward health, development and personal responsibility

Decreases in smoking and intention to smoke

1985

Pedro­Carroll & Cowen

Children of Divorce Intervention Program

Rochester, NY 

4 suburban schools

n = 75 (individual)

3-6th grade 

M=42

F=33

Cauc=100%

Exposure: 10 sessions 

Content: Health and social competence promotion

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral competencies, bonding, self­efficacy, resilience, prosocial norms, opportunities for prosocial involvement, and recognition for positive behavior School Increases in social competence, frustration tolerance, assertiveness, problem­solving

Decreases in learning problems, anxiety, negative classroom adjustment

1990 

Botvin, Baker, Dusenbury, Tortu & Botvin

1995

Botvin, Baker, Dusenbury, Botvin & Diaz

Life Skills Training (LST)
(in 56 New York State Public Schools

New York State 

Posttests

n=4466 
(full sample)

n=3684
(high fidelity sample)

Long­term follow-up

n=3597
(full sample)

n=2652 
(high fidelity sample)

7th - 9th grade

Cauc=91%

Unspec=9%

Exposure: 15 sessions, 2 per week (Y1); 10 booster sessions (Y2); 5 booster sessions (Y3) 

Content: Competence promotion & resistance training

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, & behavioral competencies, bonding, & prosocial norms School Posttests
Increases in interpersonal skills, knowledge of smoking & substance abuse consequences

Decreases in cigarette & marijuana smoking, alcohol intoxication, in expectations concerning adult smoking norms & norms for adult & peer marijuana use

Long-Term (Outcomes are for whole sample and intervention sub­groups)

Decreases in monthly & weekly cigarette smoking, heavy cigarette smoking, problem drinking, polydrug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana)

High Fidelity Sample
Decreases in monthly, weekly & heavy cigarette smoking; weekly & heavy problem drinking; alcohol intoxication, monthly & weekly marijuana, combinations of polydrug variables.

1996 

Greenberg

1997

Greenberg & Kusche

Providing Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) Curriculum

Seattle, WA

n=286 (individual)

6-11 years 

1st-3rd grade

Cauc=165
AfrAm=91
As=11
Fil=7
NatAm=7
Hisp=1
Unk=4

Exposure 20-30 minutes 3 times per week over the school year 

Content: Competence promotion in self­control, self­management & problem solving strategies

Experimental Social, emotional, cognitive, behavioral and moral competencies, self­efficacy, bonding, resiliency, and recognition for positive behavior School Posttests
Increases in social, cognitive & emotional competence, self­efficacy, problem­solving

Decreases in aggressiveness, passivity & conduct problems

Long-term
Increases in emotional understanding, interpersonal problem­solving skills, self­control, prosocial solutions, improvement in quality of social planning, concentration & focus, social/school functioning

Decreases in externalizing behaviors, aggressiveness, passivity, conduct problems

Improvements for special needs group
Increases in social planning, focus & concentration, self­control

Decreases in aggression, passivity, conduct problems, somatic complaints, depressive symptoms

1993 

Ellickson, Bell & Harrison

1993

Ellickson, Bell & McGuigan

1990

Ellickson & Bell

Project ALERT

California & Oregon 

n=3852 (individual)

7th-8th grade 

M=49%
F=51%

Cauc=71%
Hisp=9%
AfrAm=8%
As=10%
NatAm/and Other=3%

Exposure 10 sessions in 7th grade; 3 booster sessions in 8th grade

Content: Competence promotion & refusal/resistance training

Experimental Social, cognitive & behavioral competencies, self­efficacy, & prosocial norms School Posttests (15 months after baseline
Increases in self­efficacy, pos. changes in cigarette & marijuana knowledge and attitudes

Decreases (sub­groups by risk level) in smoking cigarettes & marijuana, expectations of using

Follow-Up (grades 10 & 12)
Increases in beliefs about immediate and negative social consequences of drugs (10th grade only)

Decreases for all behavioral findings disappeared by 12th grade