Policy Research for Front of Package Nutrition Labeling: Developing and Testing a Summary System Algorithm. References

05/01/2011

Arambepola, C., Scarborough, P., & Rayner, M. (2007). Validating a nutrient profile model. Public Health Nutrition, 11(4), 371-378.

Bowman, S. A., Friday, J. E., & Moshfegh, A. (2008). MyPyramid Equivalents Database, 2.0 for USDA Survey Foods 2003-2004. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Surveys Research Group, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/fsrg.

Chiuve, S. E., Sampson, L., & Willett, W. C. (2011). The association between a nutritional quality index and risk of chronic disease. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 40(5), 505-513.

Code of Federal Regulations. (1993a). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Part 101 - Food Labeling, Subpart E - Specific Requirements for Health Claims. § 101.74 Health claims: Sodium and hyptertension.

Code of Federal Regulations. (1993b). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Part 101 - Food Labeling, Subpart E - Specific Requirements for Health Claims. § 101.75 Health claims: Dietary saturated fat and cholesterol and risk of coronary heart disease.

Code of Federal Regulations. (1996). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Parts 136, 137, and 139 - Food Standards: Amendment of Standards of Identity for Enriched Grain Products to Require Addition of Folic Acid.

Code of Federal Regulations. (2000 amended). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Part 101 - Food Labeling, Subpart E - Specific Requirements for Health Claims. § 101.79 Health claims: Folate and neural tube defects.

Code of Federal Regulations. (2001 amended). Title 21, Food and drugs. Part 101-Food Labeling. Subpart A-General Provisions, Sec. 101.14 Health claims: General requirements.

Code of Federal Regulations. (2008 amended-a). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Part 101 - Food Labeling, Subpart E - Specific Requirements for Health Claims. § 101.72 Health claims: Calcium, vitamin D, and osteoporosis.

Code of Federal Regulations. (2008 amended-b). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Part 101 - Food Labeling, Subpart E - Specific Requirements for Health Claims. § 101.81 Health claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD).

Code of Federal Regulations. (2010a). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Part 101 - Food Labeling, Subpart A - General Provisions. § 101.9 Nutrition labeling of food.

Code of Federal Regulations. (2010b). Title 21: Food and Drugs, Part 101 - Food Labeling, Subpart A - General Provisions. § 101.12 Reference amounts customarily consumed per eating occasion.

Connor, W. E., & Connor, S. L. (2002). Dietary cholesterol and coronary heart disease. Current Atherosclerosis Reports, 4, 425-432.

Drewnowski, A., Maillot, M., & Darmon, N. (2009). Should nutrient profiles be based on 100 g, 100 kcal or serving size? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 63, 898-904.

Food and Nutrition Board. Institute of Medicine. (2002). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

Fulgoni, V. L., III, Keast, D. R., & Drewnowski, A. (2009). Development and validation of the nutrient-rich foods index: a tool to measure nutritional quality of foods. Journal of Nutrition, 139, 1549-1554.

Guenther, P. M., Reedy, J., Krebs-Smith, S. M., & Reeve, B. B. (2008). Evaluation of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Journal of American Dietetic Association, 108, 1854-1864.

Guenther, P. M., Reedy, J., Krebs-Smith, S. M., Reeve, B. B., & Basiotis, P. P. (2007). Development and Evaluation of the Healthy Eating Index-2005. Technical Report (Vol. ). Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Available at http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/HealthyEatingIndex.htm.

Hersey, J. C., Wohlegenant, K. C., Kosa, K. M., Arsenault, J. E., & Muth, M. K. (2011). Policy Research for Front of Package Nutrition Labeling: Environmental Scan and Literature Review. Research Triangle Park: RTI International.

Howarth, N. C., Saltzman, E., & Roberts, S. B. (2001). Dietary fiber and weight regulation. Nutrition Reviews, 59(5), 129-139.

Katz, D. L. (2007). ONQI Version 1 Abbreviated Reference Manual. Derby, CT: Griffin Hospital.

Katz, D. L., Njike, V. Y., Faridi, Z., Rhee, L. Q., Reeves, R. S., Jenkins, D. J. A., & Ayoob, K. T. (2009). The stratification of foods on the basis of overall nutritional quality: the Overall Nutritional Quality Index. American Journal of Health Promotion, 24(2), 133-143.

Katz, D. L., Njike, V. Y., Rhee, L. Q., Reingold, A., & Ayoob, K. T. (2010). Performance characteristics of NuVal and the Overall Nutritional Quality Index (ONQI). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(Suppl), 1102S-1108S.

Law, M. R., Frost, C. D., & Wald, N. J. (1991). By how much does dietary salt reduction lower blood pressure? III. Analysis of data from trials of salt reduction. British Medical Journal, 302, 819-824.

Lupton, J. R., Balentine, D. A., Black, R. M., Hildwine, R., Ivens, B. J., Kennedy, E. T., . . . Story, M. (2010). The Smart Choices front-of-package nutrition labeling program: rationale and development of the nutrition criteria. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(Suppl), 1078S-1089S.

Malik, V. S., Schulze, M. B., & Hu, F. B. (2006). Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and weight gain: a systematic review. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 84, 274-288.

Mensick, R. P., Zock, P. L., Kester, A. D. M., & Katan, M. B. (2003). Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 77, 1146-1155.

Mozaffarian, D., Katan, M. B., Ascherio, A., Stampfer, M. J., & Willett, W. C. (2006). Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. New England Journal of Medicine, 354, 1601-1613.

Neuman, W. (2009). For your health, froot loops. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/05/business/05smart.html?_r=3.

Nijman, C. A. J., Zijp, I. M., Sierksma, A., Roodenburg, A. J. C., Leenen, R., van den Kerkhoff, C., . . . Meijer, G. W. (2007). A method to improve the nutritional quality of foods and beverages based on dietary recommendations. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61, 461-471.

Obarzanek, E., Proschan, M. A., Vollmer, W. M., Moore, T. J., Sacks, F. M., Appel, L. J., . . . Cutler, J. A. (2003). Individual blood pressure responses to changes in salt intake. Results from the DASH-sodium trial. Hypertension, 42, 459-467.

Queenan, K. M., Stewart, M. L., Smith, K. N., Thomas, W., Fulcher, G., & Slavin, J. L. (2007). Concentrated oat beta-glucan, a fermentable fiber, lowers serum cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic adults in a randomized controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 6, 6. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-6-6

Quinio, C., Biltoft-Jensen, A., De Henauw, S., Gibney, M. J., Huybrechts, I., McCarthy, S. N., . . . Volatier, J. L. (2007). Comparison of different nutrient profiling schemes to a new reference method using dietary surveys. European Journal of Nutrition, 46(Suppl 2), 37-46.

Salmerón, J., Ascherio, A., Rimm, E. B., Colditz, G. A., Spiegelman, D., Jenkins, D. J., . . . Willett, W. C. (1997). Dietary fiber, glycemic load, and risk of NIDDM in men. Diabetes Care, 20(4), 545-550.

Scarborough, P., Arambepola, C., Kaur, A., Bhatnagar, P., & Rayner, M. (2010). Should nutrient profile models be "category specific" or "across-the-board"? A comparison of the two systems using diets of British adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64(6), 553-560. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2010.31

Scarborough, P., Boxer, A., Rayner, M., & Stockley, L. (2007). Testing nutrient profile models using data from a survey of nutritional professionals. Public Health Nutrition, 10(4), 337-345.

Scarborough, P., Rayner, M., Stockley, L., & Black, A. (2007). Nutrition professionals' perception of the 'healthiness' of individual foods. Public Health Nutrition, 10(4), 346-353.

Tetens, I., Oberdorfer, R., Madsen, C., & de Vries, J. (2007). Nutritional characterisation of foods: science-based approach to nutrient profiling. European Journal of Nutrition, 46 (Suppl 2), 4-14.

Townsend, M. S. (2010). Where is the science? What will it take to show that nutrient profiling systems work? American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(Suppl), 1109S-1115S.

Truswell, A. S. (2002). Cereal grains and coronary heart disease. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 1-14.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2009). USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 22. Beltsville, MD: Agricultural Research Service, Nutrient Data Laboratory Home Page, http://www.ars.usda.gov/ba/bhnrc/ndl.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2010a). MyPyramid Retrieved May 11, 2010, from http://www.mypyramid.gov.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2008). USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, 3.0. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Surveys Research Group.

U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2010b). USDA Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies, 4.0. Beltsville, MD: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Food Surveys Research Group.

U.S. Department of Agriculture & U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2010). Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, & U.S. Department of Agriculture. (2005). Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2005. 6th Edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Volatier, J. L., Biltoft-Jensen, A., De Henauw, S., Gibney, M. J., Huybrechts, I., McCarthy, S. N., . . . Tetens, I. (2007). A new reference method for validation of the nutrient profiling schemes using dietary surveys. European Journal of Nutrition, 46(Suppl 2), 29-36.

WHO. (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Disease. Report of a joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series 916. Geneva: World Health Organization.

Willett, W. C. (2002). Dietary fat plays a major role in obesity: no. Obesity Reviews, 3(2), 59-68.

 

End Notes

1 Initially, soy sauce was in the top 500 commonly consumed foods, but we eliminated it because its high sodium content was unduly influencing scores for the legume food group.