From 1991-1999, approximately 40,000 single parents (primarily mothers) and their children were followed for a five-year period after random assignment to either a welfare reform program or to traditional welfare groups. Eleven different programs in seven different sites across the U.S. were included in the evaluation. Three of the sites simultaneously operated two different programs – one program focused on immediate employment (a Labor Force Attachment (LFA) program) and one based on education and skills building (a Human Capitol Development (HCD) program) – expressly for evaluation purposes. Different samples were included in different analyses, but all samples exceeded 1,000 individuals.

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