Findings indicated limited effects for elementary school-age children; for instance, there was no  significant program impact on school performance, level of engagement in school, or receipt of special education. There were no effects on the measures of social behavior and emotional well-being, nor were there differences between the welfare reform group and the traditional welfare group in terms of children’s health status, frequency of injuries or accidents, or medical and dental care. Fewer outcome variables were measured for adolescents. Although negative effects of welfare reform were reported for parental ratings of adolescents’ school performance, no differences were observed in other areas, such as school dropout rates and teen births. Moreover, welfare reform was not associated with differences on measures of the home environment (e.g., cognitive stimulation, emotional support); children’s involvement with nonresident fathers; or most measures of household stability. Additional findings showed that children in the welfare reform condition spent somewhat more time in child care, and that welfare reform was associated with lowered maternal depression and a small but significant reduction on a parenting aggravation scale. The families continued to face significant challenges; most remained financially insecure with multiple family problems in both groups.

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