Performance Improvement 2002. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention



To promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability.

Evaluation Program

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts evaluation studies designed to provide information essential for CDC’s strategies to achieve its mission:

  • Conduct public health research, including epidemiology, laboratory, behavior, and social sciences.
  • Develop and implement ongoing evaluation of scientific research.
  • Assure that scientific information is communicated effectively to the general public.
  • Develop and implement public health information systems for monitoring and promoting the health of the Nation.
  • Deploy multidisciplinary teams to detect and investigate health threats.
  • Develop and implement a system for establishing CDC scientific and programmatic priorities.
  • Routinely evaluate the effectiveness and cost of CDC programs.
  • Demonstrate the value of investment in health prevention.
  • Collaborate with diverse partners.
  • Design, implement, and evaluate prevention programs based on community needs.
  • Prepare the public health leaders (present and future) through training in management and public health science.

CDC places high priority on evaluations to answer policy, program, and strategic planning questions related to the goals and objectives of Healthy People 2010. Performance improvement studies, such as those focusing upon the development of indicators consistent with the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA), are of particular interest and import to the Agency. With the support of 1‑percent evaluation funds, the GPRA planning process began at CDC in FY 1995 and is continuing.

Completed Evaluations

A Process Evaluation of the Vaccines for Children Program: Final Methodology Report

Vaccines for Children (VFC) is a state-operated, federal entitlement program that supplies private and public providers with federally-purchased vaccine. Children eligible for the program include American Indian/Alaskan Natives, Medicaid enrolled, uninsured, or children who are insured but whose insurance does not cover vaccinations. The study was designed to: (1) determine the VFC eligibility of children seen for immunization only services in Health Department clinics in South Carolina; and (2) to determine the factors associated with seeking immunization in this setting. To address these study objectives, the contractors drew a stratified sample (by number of immunization-only services during a 4-month period) of 24 health department clinics. Each of two interviewers was assigned 12 clinics from which to collect data. The interviewers visited each of the clinics at least four times during the data collection period to conduct in-person interviews with the chief caregiver of children 12 years of age and under. Respondents were sampled within clinics by time of visit, with the interviewers varying visit times. A total of 706 interviews were completed during the study period. Extensive information was provided in the report on sampling procedures, data entry and storage, and data verification. The study included a 10 percent verification call back to respondents. Since this was a methodology report, no data from the study were provided in the report.
PIC ID: 7197.1; CONTACT: Nancy Cheal, 404-639-7095; PERFORMER: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC

Evaluation of Adult Immunization Activities

The purpose of this evaluation was to clarify how adult immunization program activities were conducted by grantees and how those activities were related to immunization coverage. This study addressed an important public health issue of adult immunization coverage, particularly immunization for influenza, pneumococcal disease, and hepatitis B. Since 1997, 64 states, territories, and selected cities have been able to use CDC 317 grant funds to support vaccine and vaccination programs for adults. The evaluation was based on reviews of secondary information collected from the 64 grantees, including grant continuation applications and reports, and semi-structured interviews with grantee state immunization program managers or designees. Qualitative and quantitative data were analyzed. Only data from the 1998 applications and reports was included, as they were thought to be more complete and representative. Major findings include: (1) less than half (45%) of states have a separate coalition for adult immunization. (2) 73% and 39% of states reported all public health departments provided adults with influenza and pneumococcal vaccination services, respectively. (3) the top six groups that were specifically targeted for adult immunization were: those with diabetes, those at risk of hepatitis B, residents of nursing homes, African Americans, recent immigrants, and Hispanics. (4) 60% of states reported not collecting influenza and pneumococcal vaccination coverage for persons over age 65.
PIC ID: 7498; CONTACT: Susan Cleveland, 404-639-7042; PERFORMER: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC

Community Characteristics and Indicators: The Role and Measurement of Community Characteristics in Community-Level HIV/AIDS Interventions

As policy directives have changed to encourage and facilitate community-level interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention, CDC has undertaken several research projects and related activities to establish the efficacy and effectiveness of community-level interventions. One such activity was the one-year Community Indicators Project (1999) intended to identify measures or indicators that assess community-level changes. Initial results from the Community Indicators Project suggested that before we can identify relevant community indicators that measure change in community characteristics and their impact on behavior change and sustainability of prevention efforts, the following tasks should be completed:

1) clarify and refine working definitions of key terms such as community, culture, social structure and sustainability; 2) provide more detail on theoretical assumptions and hypotheses that explain causal pathways between community characteristics and risk behavior and prevention efforts; 3) review empirical evidence in HIV/AIDS and other health-related areas on the associations between literature and other sources (e.g., intervention protocols) for existing measures of community-level change.
PIC ID: 6701; CONTACT: Esther Sumartojo, 404-639-8300; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Atlanta, GA

Evaluation of Medicaid Reporting Using SLAITS

With evaluation funds from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Center for Health Statistics was able to use the State and Local Area Integrated Telephone Survey (SLAITS) to test the quality of study participants’ ability to accurately report Medicaid enrollment in one state. The Minnesota Department of Human Services worked with NCHS to provide contact information on resident children currently enrolled in either Medicaid or MinnesotaCare. From the administrative records, parents of children enrolled in 1999 were randomly selected for interviews using the SLAITS questionnaire module on Child Well-Being and Welfare. In addition to the information on health care coverage, this project provided substantial information on program participation and indicators of child well-being. These indicators include education, child care, family functioning, household stability, neighborhood characteristics, social development, public assistance program participation, and health insurance. Of the 504 completed interviews, 82.3% of parents/guardians correctly reported their child’s current Medicaid coverage. While the data indicated that substantial under reporting of Medicaid exists, they do not indicate the bias would lead to over reporting insurance coverage. Results of this study have been published, and a public use data file is available.
PIC ID: 7046; CONTACT: Marcie Cynamon, 301-436-7085; PERFORMER: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, NJ

Evaluation of the National Health Interview Survey

The purpose of this project was to determine the feasibility of releasing preliminary estimates for a selected set of health measures from the NHIS in a timely fashion. The project had several phases. The first was to identify candidate health measures to be considered for early release. A review was conducted of existing lists of key health measures and out of this grew a list of 15 health measures to evaluate. Data were analyzed from 1997 and 1998 for these potential measures to determine the need for editing, seasonality of estimates, and minimum amount of data needed to make reliable estimates. The project also developed a preliminary weighting scheme and compared results with final weights. The results indicate estimates could be released for most measures using data from 1-2 quarters. The first set of measures were released on the NCHS web site in April 2001 based on data from January - June 2000 ( NCHS can now provide key data to policy makers and others on a very timely basis.
PIC ID: 7040; CONTACT: Ann Hardy, 301-436-7085; PERFORMER: TRW Government Information Services, Fairfax, VA

Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci Colonization in Patients At Seven Outpatient Hemodialysis

Vascular access infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality to hemodialysis patients, and the use of antimicrobials to treat such infections contributes to the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. This study was conducted to determine the incidence of and risk factors for vascular access infections. Hemodialysis patients were studied at seven outpatient dialysis centers (four in Richmond, VA and three in Baltimore, MD). Vascular access infections were defined as local signs at the vascular access site or a positive blood culture with no known source other than the vascular access; and hospitalization or receipt of an IV antimicrobial. A total of 796 patients were followed for 4,134 patient-months. Patients had a 3.5% risk of infection each month. The data show that vascular access infections are common in hemodialysis patients but that infection rates differ substantially among different centers. Catheter use should be minimized to reduce these infections. Additionally, it is possible, according to the report, that improved serum albumin and urea reduction ratio could reduce vascular access infections and should be evaluated.
PIC ID: 6703.1; CONTACT: Jerome Tokars, 404-639-6418; PERFORMER: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, Washington, DC

A Framework for State TBI Surveillance Programs

Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the United States, especially among children and young people. Despite the prevalence and severity of TBI events, accurate surveillance data about TBI has not been consistently collected and analyzed. During the past decade, CDC’s National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC) has developed and expanded a state-based surveillance system for TBI to help address this knowledge gap. The purpose of this study was to assess a sample of six currently funded programs in order to understand the evolution of state TBI surveillance programs, identify successes and common pitfalls, and craft a framework or logic model depicting the core activities of these types of programs. The study methods included: a review of background materials; a literature review; interviews with stakeholders; and site visits. This report represents key findings from the study’s data collection activities in three areas: (1) Measures of success - the responses included building the capacity for basic epidemiology, contributing to broader infrastructure goals, advancing the science base, affecting policy, and developing data systems. (2) Program Strengths - CDC’s state-based TBI surveillance programs have produced quality data on TBI, increased TBI’s visibility, influenced policy, shaped local programs, and advanced the science base. (3) CDC and State Activities - CDC support state-based TBI surveillance programs in its information sharing role, as a data disseminator, as a provider of technical assistance, particularly in the area of training, and, is a major funder for state TBI programs.
PIC ID: 7508; CONTACT: Doug Browne, 404-488-7098; PERFORMER: Management Assistance Corporation, Dulles, VA

In-Progress Evaluations

Evaluation of State-Based Data Dissemination Activities Via the Internet

Phase I of the project will evaluate current efforts by states to develop internet-based dissemination tools for integrated community-level data and develop criteria for usability of these data for community-based assessment activities. During subsequent phases, the study will evaluate the usefulness of a selected dissemination tool in structured focus groups and develop implementation strategies for states with different capacity or resources.
PIC ID: 7751; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Patricia Schumacher, 770-488-8375; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluation of a New Methodology for Community Participatory Research

This study will assess the participatory research methods of the CDC Urban Research Centers, located in Detroit, New York City and Seattle. These projects are in various phases of using participatory action research methods to determine “what works” to improve the quality of life of inner city, impoverished populations.
PIC ID: 7746; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Donna Higgins, 202-205-0932; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluation of the Public Health Prevention Service

In 1997 the Epidemiology Program Office established the Public Health Prevention Service (PHPS), a new three-year training program designed to improve the Nation’s public health practice by preparing entry-level public health professionals to conduct prevention programs. This evaluation project will establish the foundation for a monitoring and evaluation system designed to provide feedback to the PHPS program for continuous improvement.
PIC ID: 7038; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Dennis Jarvis, 404-639-4087; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Atlanta, GA

Development of a Manual for Asthma Wellness in Schools

The purpose of this activity is to develop a manual for asthma wellness in schools that will 1) outline best practices and policies for an asthma wellness and education program in the context of a school health program, which includes education, physical education, health services, nutrition services, counseling, psychological and social services, health school environment, health promotion for staff, and family and community involvement. In addition, an appendix section of case studies will contain exemplary school-based asthma intervention programs, existing instruments used to assess and improve a school’s asthma related policies and activities, a reference section and a resource list of expert panel members and their institutional and organizational affiliation.
PIC ID: 7700; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Howell Wechsler, 770-488-6197; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluating National Dissemination Strategies for Effective HIV/Tobacco Prevention Programs for Youth

This project is an evaluation of dissemination strategies to increase the adoption and implementation of HIV prevention programs for youth in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to improve national, state and local training programs that promote the adoption of effective health curricula identified by the ongoing CDC Research to Classroom Project (RTC).
PIC ID: 7750; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Steven Banspach, 770-488-3257; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Evaluation of CDC Cardiovascular State Health

The purpose of this task order is to evaluate the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) State Program. This will involve providing evaluation assistance to CDC in developing an evaluation framework for the CVH State Program; assessing state evaluation capacity and training needs; and providing technical assistance to states on implementation of the CDC evaluation framework.
PIC ID: 7701; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Dyann Matson Koffman, 770-488-8002; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluation of Cardiovascular Health National State-Based Program

The purpose of this project is to assist in evaluation activities related to the Cardiovascular Health (CVH) State Program. Specifically, the work will involve evaluation assistance in (1) providing technical assistance to CDC on developing an evaluation framework for the CVH State Program; (2) providing general technical assistance in the area of the evaluation that is consistent with the CDC Evaluation Framework; (3) providing technical assistance to states in understanding the CDC evaluation framework.
PIC ID: 7703; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Sheree Williams, 770-488-8007; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluation of Communication Activities of the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEA) National Network

The purpose of this evaluation is to contribute process measures to an evaluation of outcomes planned by the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP). A “program operations” evaluation of the NDEP is proposed to ascertain the effectiveness of partnership network communication activities under the special population activities of NDEP, in the following areas: 1) design and development of culturally appropriate messages and products, 2) delivering the intervention, 3) reaching the intended audiences, and, 4) producing intended changes in awareness, attitudes and reported behavior. The research will be managed jointly by the Division of Diabetes Translation (NCCDPHP) and the Division of Health Communication, Office of Communications (OD).
PIC ID: 7430; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2003; CONTACT: Phyllis McGuire, 770-488-5025; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluation of Public Health Care Providers Training, Screening and Referral Practices for Pregnancy-Related Violence

This project will conduct national population-based surveys of administrators and clinical providers in family planning programs funded by Titles X and XX, maternal and child health programs funded by Title V, and the federally-funded Primary and Migrant Health Centers. The information obtained from these surveys will be used to develop recommendations for the development of future clinical guidelines.
PIC ID: 6712; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Alison Spitz, 770-488-5260; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Evaluation of the Coordinated Community Response

The purpose of this project is to assist CDC with management and oversight of intimate partner violence (IPV) inter-project communication and analysis of program data within the Coordinated Community Response (CCR) Projects.
PIC ID: 7705; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Annie Howerton, 770-488-4266; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Review and Synthesis of Measures of Youth Physical Fitness and Physical Activity

The purpose of this project is to collect relevant information regarding the design, development and conduct of surveys of physical fitness and physical activity among children and adolescents, and to synthesize and summarize this information into a final report that can be used to design and develop a nationally-representative youth physical fitness and physical activity surveillance system.
PIC ID: 7702; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Janet Fulton, 404-488-5430; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluation of the National Folic Acid Campaign

The purpose of this study is to ascertain the effectiveness of current methods to (1) raise awareness about the benefits of folic acid for the prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs) and (2) to increase consumption of folic acid to levels sufficient to prevent the majority of NTDs.
PIC ID: 7748; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Katherine Lyon-Daniel, 770-488-7182; PERFORMER: Westat, Incorporated, Atlanta, GA

Folic Acid and the Prevention of Spina Bifida

This project proposes to evaluate the effectiveness of a free folic acid supplement distribution program in a family planning setting using blood folate determinates in conjunction with questionnaires of knowledge and supplement use behaviors.
PIC ID: 7042; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Margaret Watkins, 770-488-7187; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Assessing the Evaluation Capacity of Health Departments

This study will assess and describe the current evaluation capacity (ability of state and local health departments to conduct evaluation activities outlined in the CDC Evaluation Guidance and Data System) for 65 HIV prevention fund grantees, to develop performance measures that will enable tracking of changes in evaluation capacity over time and for information evaluation training and technical assistance activities.
PIC ID: 7747; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Gary Uhl, 404-639-0950; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Development of a National HIV/AIDS Taxonomy Prevention Intervention for Program Evaluation

This project will: (1) comprehensively and systematically identify and inventory taxonomy of interventions nationally that can be used for evaluation effectiveness purposes; (2) develop a systematic taxonomy of HIV/AIDS interventions that can be integrated into and used by local, state and national groups and organizations for program development, improvement and evaluation; and (3) adopt and develop an alphanumerically coded taxonomy for the HIV/AIDS interventions identified that complies with national and international metadata standards and methodologies through creation of intervention data dictionaries, thesauri, and a unique coding scheme for each of the various types of interventions, as well as a standard protocol to be followed when identifying or incorporating a particular type of HIV/AIDS intervention into an HIV/AIDS program.
PIC ID: 7707; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Timothy Akers, 404-639-0926; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Evaluation of CDC Recommendations for the Prevention and Control of Tuberculosis in Jails

The purpose of this evaluation is to determine to what extent the CDC guidelines have been implemented in jails to identify barriers for implementation of the recommendations.
PIC ID: 7752; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Mark Lobato, 404-639-8131; PERFORMER: Abt Associates Inc., Cambridge, MA

Geo-Analysis of HIV Prevention

This project will build on the knowledge gained from the previous studies to provide a multi-level, geo-references review of CDC-funded, Community Based Organization (CBO) -provided HIV prevention services. The purposes of the project are: (1) to contribute to the construction of a national database of HIV prevention activities by developing a geo-coded database that identifies, locates and maps all CBOs directly and indirectly funded by CDC in the US and its territories, and (2) to evaluate the comprehensiveness of HIV Prevention services in seven geographic areas by piloting, in one state or Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), the use of GIS technology as the primary analytical tool. A telephone survey will be conducted.
PIC ID: 7699; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Aisha Gilliam, 404-639-0919; PERFORMER: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC

Health Care Adherence: TB Skin Testing

This study is being conducted to determine why health care workers comply or do not comply with recommended tuberculin skin testing and treatment for lateen tuberculosis infection policies and guidelines. It is expected that this study will provide a knowledge base for which products can be developed to improve adherence.
PIC ID: 7706; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Maureen Wilce, 404-639-8123; PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc., Calverton, MD

Know Now Campaign

This study will be used to evaluate the media components of the Serostatus Approach for Fighting the Epidemic (SAFE) project, to increase the number of people who know their HIV status and to promote the entry of those infected with HIV into a system of care. The proposed evaluation will contribute to the general understanding of how well targeting through marketing clusters can be implemented for prevention marketing campaigns and may lead to ways to improve CDC prevention marketing for the SAFE project and behavior-related diseases, such as HIV, in general.
PIC ID: 7433; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: David Davis, 404-639-0938; PERFORMER: Aeffect, Inc., Chicago, IL

Survey of Syphilis and HIV Treatment, Reporting

The purpose of this project is to conduct a survey of a sample of physicians’ diagnosis, treatment, reporting and partner management practices for syphilis and HIV infection. The study will determine when, under what conditions, for which diseases, how and for which patients, practitioners notify and/or treat the sexual partners of patients who are diagnosed with syphilis and HIV infection.
PIC ID: 7054; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Janet St. Lawrence, 404-639-8376; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Evaluation of Expanding Pharmaceutical Data- NHIS

The purpose of the project is to evaluate the collection of pharmaceutical data similar to data collected in the National Hospital Ambulatory Care Survey (NHMACS) for discharges sampled in the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS). Activities will include evaluation of methods currently employed in NHAMCS; evaluation of potential sources and methods to collect pharmaceutical data for inpatients as part of the NHDS if NHAMCS methodology is not transportable; evaluate and describe similarities and differences between drug data collected in hospitals and in the NHAMCS; develop a plan for field testing two methods to collect pharmaceutical data as part of the NHDS; develop or modify NHDS forms, procedures and manuals for a field test to collect these pharmaceutical data and, develop training materials for the field test.
PIC ID: 7745; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Robert Pokras, 301-458-4439; PERFORMER: CODA, Inc.

Definition of Public Health Lab Core Capabilities

The purpose of this project is to begin the process of developing a consensus definition of core capacities for infectious disease surveillance starting with public health laboratories. A contractor will be hired to develop and pilot test a methodology for assessing necessary public health laboratory capacities and capabilities for select infectious diseases. For the purposes of this proposal, capacity refers to the output of testing or services accomplished over a defined time period; capability refers to a specific activity that will ensure the laboratory’s success in conducting infectious disease surveillance.
PIC ID: 7742; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Deborah Deppe, 404-639-4668; PERFORMER: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC

Evaluation of PICARD Software

The goal of this evaluation is to determine: usefulness and user friendliness; feasibility of using Preventable Injuries Costs and Related Deaths (PICARD) to generate state data on preventable injury and associated costs by states; if the use of PICARD contributes to the formation of new bicycle helmet promotion programs, policies and laws; and if NCIPC should develop additional PICARD modules for other priority injury prevention topics.
PIC ID: 7743; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Sarah Olson, 770-488-1302; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Links Among Different Forms of Adolescent Violence

The purpose of this project is to prepare a literature review, protocol and data collection instruments for a subsequent survey on sexual, physical and non-physical aggression among same-sex and opposite-sex adolescent peers. This project will provide a description of a) prevalence, correlates and consequences of different types of aggressive behaviors used by adolescent males and females; b) the association between dating violence and other forms of peer violence; and c) how these guide efforts to develop prevention strategies that address peer and dating violence.
PIC ID: 7698; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Joyce McCurdy, 770-488-4266; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Role of Power and Control in Intimate Partner Violence

The purpose of this project is to conduct an exhaustive literature review of theoretical and empirical work addressing the role of power and control in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration. IPV includes physical, sexual and psychological violence. The project seeks to identify how power and control is conceptualized, operationalized and measured. The project will also identify battering measurement instruments and batterer intervention programs, develop a relationship between power and control and their contribution to the perpetration of IPV. Findings from this study will guide prevention and intervention activities that address IPV perpetration. A telephone survey will be conducted.
PIC ID: 7697; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Annie Howerton, 770-488-4266; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Second Injury Control and Risk Survey (ICARIS-2)

This project is a follow-up study to the first ICARIS (Injury Control and Risk Survey) conducted in 1994. By using data collected in ICARIS as a baseline, ICARIS-2 can measure changes and gauge the impact of injury prevention policies. It will also serve as the only readily available source of data to measure several of the Healthy People 2010 injury prevention objectives.
PIC ID: 7695; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: John Horan, 770-488-1653; PERFORMER: Battelle Corporation, Arlington, VA

Evaluation of Provider Distribution of Flu Vaccine

The purpose of this project is to evaluate whether providers adhered to public health service recommendations regarding modification of vaccination practices and to assess the use of vaccine ordered from the nine million doses. More generally, the project will assess influenza vaccination practices of public and private health care providers in the U.S. in order to develop strategies to improve vaccination coverage of persons who are at risk for influenza-related medical complications and their contacts.
PIC ID: 7704; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Marika Iwane, 404-639-8769; PERFORMER: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC

Evaluation of Standing Orders in Nursing Homes

The purpose of this evaluation is to identify the costs of implementing standing orders programs and their components compared to other organized immunization programs in long term care facilities (LTC) and, subsequently, to determine the cost-effectiveness of such programs and their components. This evaluation will require two phases: Phase 1 will include identification of program costs and of effects of program on staff and resident flow at the LTC and, Phase 2 will include determination of cost effectiveness of the programs related to improvement in vaccination coverage rates in the LTC.
PIC ID: 7434; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: Abigail Shefer, 404-639-8333; PERFORMER: Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, NC

Evaluation of the Use of Data from Immunization Information Systems

Currently, at least 22 states have immunization information systems (IIS) functioning either state-wide or in some counties or local communities. At this point in the development cycle, it is important to evaluate how the data in the IIS are used. If it is understood how these data are used and structural and functional barriers to data use can be identified, recommendations can be made to promote the full use of these data resources.
PIC ID: 6713; EXPECTED COMPLETION: FY 2002; CONTACT: John Stevenson, 404-639-8730; PERFORMER: Advanced Technology Systems, Johnson City, TN