A Study of Infant Care Under Welfare Reform

Twenty-two States have used the new flexibility granted under the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (PRWORA), to require work of parents whose youngest child is less than one year old. The purposes of this study are to learn more about the policy and program challenges facing States that are encouraging welfare parents with infants to work or attend school, and to build the foundation for future research on programs, policies and strategies that can successfully transition parents from welfare to work while promoting the health and development of infants. To achieve these objectives, the study will examine three central issues: (1) the policies, programs and strategies that States are currently using to transition parents with infants off of welfare and arrange child care for infants; (2) the ways in which parents who are transitioning from welfare to work meet the competing demands of work and family responsibilities and how they meet their infant care needs; and (3) the availability of quality infant care and its impact on parents' ability to meet welfare program requirements. The study includes the three following phases: (1) information-gathering, (2) in-depth study, and (3) research design.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Jakopic, Richard
202-205-5930

PIC ID: 7113

PERFORMER: Mathematica Policy Research, Inc.
Washington, DC

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 03/30/2001

Achieving Change for Texans

This project continues an evaluation of the State of Texas' original welfare reform demonstration. The demonstration consists of four major components: (1) a number of policies implemented Statewide addressing such recipient responsibilities as immunization for children, school attendance and adherence to a personal responsibility agreement; (2) a number of policies implemented in counties operating JOBS, the primary feature of which is differential benefit time limits based on consideration of work experience and the need for education; (3) a number of policy options implemented in four counties, providing for individual development accounts and fill-the-gap budgeting; and (4) a one-county pilot offering a check for $1,000 in lieu of regular Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), with no re-application for benefits for one year.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Maniha, John
202-401-5372

PIC ID: 6765

PERFORMER: State of Texas, Department of Human Services
Austin, TX

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 03/31/2002

Assessing Effective Welfare-to-Work Strategies for Domestic Violence Victims and Survivors in the Options/Opciones Project

This 5-year (1997-2002) research project will study the effective strategies in addressing the needs of abused women as they try to enter the labor market. This project will document the needs of battered girls and women on welfare, and will identify successful strategies employed to eliminate violence and exit welfare.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: MacKenzie, Mary Ann
202-401-5272

PIC ID: 6833

PERFORMER: Taylor Institute
Chicago, IL

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2002

California Welfare Reform Impact Evaluation

This demonstration will attempt to estimate the impact of California's Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. Generally, impacts will be assessed by comparing outcomes in the post-TANF period with the pre-TANF period. The impact of various county programs may also be examined by comparing outcomes among the counties. In developing models to estimate impacts, California will use a 10 percent Statewide sample of welfare recipients. These samples date back to 1987, providing a rich database to use to test the models. The sample data consist of Department of Social Services information on Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), Supplemental Security Income (SSI), Medi-Cal and foster care. These data have been supplemented by data on unemployment and disability insurance, and Department of Health Services data on births. The major research questions concern the impact of State's TANF program on self-sufficiency, family composition, and child well-being. To the extent possible, the impacts of TANF on different subgroups will be considered. Subgroups will include racial and ethnic subgroups, as well as urban and rural subdivisions. Attempts will also be made to determine the impacts of differing implementation of TANF among the counties.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Sternbach, Leonard
415-437-7671

PIC ID: 5548

PERFORMER: California Department of Social Services
Sacramento, CA

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 03/31/2002

Capitalizing the Bridge from Welfare to Independence (CBWWI)

This project is designed to expand the employment and training services provided by Goodwill Industries by constructing new centers in four counties in southwest Florida and six parishes in southeast Louisiana. Once constructed, the centers are expected to be self-supporting (i.e., no need for continuing public support) by utilizing the business activity and payroll generated by the donated goods business.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wright, Girley
202-401-5070

PIC ID: 6755

PERFORMER: Goodwill Industries of Manasota, Inc., Sarasota, FL and Goodwill Industries of Acadiana, Inc., Scott, LA

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 11/30/2000

Child Impact Studies

This project augments the existing welfare reform demonstration evaluations in five States (Connecticut, Florida, Indiana, Iowa and Minnesota) to assess the effects of different welfare reform approaches on child well-being outcomes, including school achievement, behavioral problems, and health status. The effect of intervening mechanisms, such as the quality and regularity of the home environment, child care arrangements, and parental employment and income, will also be examined.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Yaffe, Alan
202-401-4537

PIC ID: 6847

PERFORMER: Multi-Professional Services Contracts

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2001

Evaluation of Arizona Employing and Moving People Off Welfare and Encouraging Responsibility Program (EMPOWER)

Under this Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) demonstration, recipient families are encouraged to become self-sufficient by: (1) time-limiting cash assistance for adult recipients, (2) imposing a family cap, (3) extending transitional Medicaid and child care to 24 months, (4) eliminating the 100 hour rule for two parent families, (5) requiring unwed minor parents to live with a responsible adult, and (6) requiring 13 to 16 year old parents to participate in Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS).

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Sternbach, Leonard
415-437-7671

PIC ID: 6818

PERFORMER: Arizona State Department of Economic Security
Phoenix, AZ

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 12/31/2000

Evaluation of Community-based Job Retention Programs

This his project includes two components. In one, the project will provide an implementation analysis and outcome findings for current and former welfare recipients receiving employment retention and post-employment services through the GAPS program. The services will be provided to about 600 employed TANF recipients through five community-based organizations in the Pittsburgh area that received funding from the Pittsburgh Foundation. A common set of services will be provided but within the context of different existing service delivery systems among the five organizations. The project will describe the experiences of providers and participants, report on the economic success of participants over time, and present lessons for program administrators. The second component will include a descriptive analysis of the Community Solutions program through which the state Department of Human Services contracted for pre- and post-employment services from service providers using performance-based contracting and payments. Providers receive incremental payments when TANF recipient participants attain certain benchmarks including maintaining steady employment for 12 months. This component of the study focuses primarily on the experiences of service providers operating programs under the requirements and payment schedules of the performance-based contract.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Campbell, Nancye
202-401-5760

PIC ID: 6760

PERFORMER: Pittsburgh Foundation
Pittsburgh, PA

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 06/30/2001

Evaluation of Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN

Using experimental methodology, this project will consist of an implementation/process study, impact study and a cost-benefit study. It will evaluate the results of changing Los Angeles GAIN, a human resource focused welfare-to-work program, into Los Angeles Jobs-First GAIN, a labor force attachment strategy. The change involved: (1) strengthening the job club and having case managers make immediate job activity referrals universally; (2) locating job developers in GAIN offices; (3) using goals and performance-based contracts to reinforce the Work First message within GAIN; (4) change program guidelines and staff training to communicate importance of finding employment; and (5) informing enrollees of the financial advantage of even minimum wage jobs.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wolf, Lawrence
202-401-5084

PIC ID: 6840

PERFORMER: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
New York, NY

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/30/2000

Evaluation of the Employment First Program

This process evaluation will primarily focus on implementation and operation of the Nebraska Employment First Program and will conclude a special study to assess successful case management. In addition, a separate impact evaluation will be carried out comparing an intensive up-front job search strategy with the "traditional" up-front assessment approach.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Dubinsky, Michael
202-401-3442

PIC ID: 6826

PERFORMER: Nebraska State Department of Health and Human Services
Lincoln, NE

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2002

Evaluation of the North Carolina Work First Program

This project will evaluate North Carolina's Work First program which requires TANF families to work towards self- sufficiency. Through Work First, parents can receive short-term training and families can receive child care and other services.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wright, Girley
202-401-5070

PIC ID: 6829

PERFORMER: NC Department of Health and Human Services
Raleigh, NC

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2000

Front-Line Management and Practice Study

This is a study of Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) implementation at the local level, and is embedded in the larger SUNY-Albany State Capacity study, which is a 20 State implementation analysis. The principal objective of the Front- Line Management and Practice Study is to evaluate whether front-line workers are implementing the welfare goals and policies established by the States. Locally-based researchers will conduct in-depth observations in three local offices from each of four States. Sites have not yet been chosen, but no two offices will be selected from one county/city. A criterion for site selection dictates that the State give primary emphasis to work and job preparation, thus enabling the researchers to make comparisons among management practices that aim to affect the same sort of policy outcomes. Some sites will be chosen because they use traditional rule-based management and others because they rely on performance-based management.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Dubinsky, Michael
202-401-3442

PIC ID: 6841

PERFORMER: State University of New York at Albany
Albany, NY

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/30/2001

Impact Study of the New Hampshire Employment Program

This demonstration is designed to determine the impact of New Hampshire's entire Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program. It will attempt to determine the effects of TANF on caseload and on employment and earnings, as well as the effects on areas such as foster care placements, child abuse and neglect, homelessness and child support collections.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Sternbach, Leonard
415-437-7671

PIC ID: 6828

PERFORMER: New Hampshire DHHS
Concord, NH

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2002

Indiana Welfare Reform Evaluation Project

This project continues the evaluation of implementation and impacts of the "Indiana Manpower Placement and Comprehensive Training Program" (IMPACT) welfare reform waiver demonstration, now operating under Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF).

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Jakopic, Richard
202-205-5930

PIC ID: 6869

PERFORMER: Indiana Family and Social Services Administration
Indianapolis, IN

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 04/30/2002

Maryland Family Investment Program Evaluation

This is a Statewide process study to examine and document front-line assessment and allocation practices under TANF in Maryland's 24 local jurisdictions. The objective of this analysis is to help clarify the relationship between agency factors and county-level characteristics by describing county-level variation in front-line procedures.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Fucello, Mark
202-401-4538

PIC ID: 6823

PERFORMER: University of Maryland, School of Social Work and Community Planning
Baltimore, MD

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2000

Minnesota Family Investment Program (MFIP)

Using experimental methodology, this project will evaluate Minnesota's Family Investment Program (MFIP) with the following provisions:(1) increasing disregards below a specified income threshold; (2) requiring long-term recipients to participate in intensive employment/training services, including case management; and (3) consolidating benefits and simplifying rules for TANF, GA and Food Stamps.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wolf, Lawrence
202-401-5084

PIC ID: 6824

PERFORMER: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
New York, NY

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 04/30/2001

Minnesota WorkFIRST Program (Track 2)

Using a quasi-experimental, pre-test/post-test comparison group design consisting of both an impact and process study, this study will compare the WorkFirst and MFIP-S programs. WorkFirst uses a rapid labor force attachment strategy versus MFIP-S, which represents a progressive labor force attachment model.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wolf, Lawrence
202-401-5084

PIC ID: 6825

PERFORMER: Minnesota Department of Human Services
St. Paul, MN

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/30/2002

Neighbors, Services Providers, and Welfare Reform in Los Angeles County

This project will examine neighborhood variation in the availability of public and private social services throughout Los Angeles County. It will investigate how agencies are adapting to the current and anticipated changes in demand for their services as a result of welfare reform.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wright, Girley
202-401-5070

PIC ID: 6763

PERFORMER: Rand Corporation
Santa Monica, CA

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 02/29/2005

New Hampshire Employment and Training Program Process and Outcome Study

This Process and Outcome Study goes hand-in-hand with the New Hampshire Impact Study. By using surveys of recipients, staff and employers, this process study will determine how Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) was planned, designed and implemented. There will also be several special studies concerning diversion from welfare, sanctions, child care and transitional case management.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Sternbach, Leonard
415-437-7671

PIC ID: 6827

PERFORMER: New Hampshire DHHS
Concord, NH

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2001

Ohio Works First Evaluation

This demonstration will evaluate the Ohio Works First provisions and Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) policies which include: (1)completion of a self-sufficiency contract, (2) more generous income disregards, (3) a 36-out-of- any-60 month time limit, and (4) whole family sanctions. In Ohio, local jurisdictions have great flexibility in running their TANF programs, and this evaluation will attempt to determine the differential effects of the various local programs.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Sternbach, Leonard
415-437-7671

PIC ID: 6758

PERFORMER: Ohio Department of Human Services
Columbus, OH

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/30/2002

Rural Welfare to Work Strategies Project

Although there are extensive bodies of literature both on rural matters and on welfare-related matters, there is relatively little information about rural welfare issues. This report synthesizes available knowledge and, where appropriate, draws inferences from studies about the way that welfare reform is likely to affect rural welfare to work strategies. A long list of research questions remains unanswered. Foremost among them is: what set of strategies is most likely to produce economic self- sufficiency, and for what types of welfare recipients, and under what conditions? Answers to this question can help policymakers, program planners, and community members as they work to accomplish the goals of welfare reform. To build knowledge and research about effective approaches in working with rural populations, the Administration for Children and Families (ACF) awarded planning grants to ten states to help develop and study strategies to move rural families from welfare to work. To help inform the ACF project, this project attempted to cull from the literature pertinent lessons about the intersection between key features of rural areas and factors about welfare recipients' abilities to achieve economic self- sufficiency. Findings are discussed in the following seven areas: rural economic development, workforce development, community commitment, transportation, child care, hard-to-serve welfare to work participants and, restructuring administrative elements of the welfare system.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Dolson, James
202-260-6165

PIC ID: 7247

PERFORMER: Macro International, Inc.
Calverton, MD

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 04/30/2001

State Welfare Reform Evaluation Project (Connecticut's Jobs First)

Using experimental methodology, this project will continue an originally planned evaluation of the Jobs First demonstration, later incorporated into the State of Connecticut's TANF plan. The evaluation includes: (1) a short (21 month) eligibility time limit for non-exempt recipients; (2) 24 months of transitional Medicaid; (3) liberalized disregards; (4) "Family Cap", limited eligibility for children born while the family receives assistance; (5) strong job search emphasis, with employability assessment only if a search fails to yield a job; and (6) progressive sanctions for non-compliance.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wolf, Lawrence
202-401-5084

PIC ID: 6819

PERFORMER: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation
New York, NY

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 04/30/2002

State Welfare Reform Evaluation Track 2

This project, which complements a separately funded evaluation being completed on Iowa's Family Investment Program (FIP), consists of two studies: (1) a study of repeat limited benefit plan (LBP) assignments; and (2) a study of post- employment services. The study of repeat LBP assignments will describe the experiences and outcomes of welfare cases that have been assigned to the LBP more than once. The study of post-employment services will describe and compare standard and enhanced post-employment services and assess their contribution to a client's progress toward self-sufficiency. See also PIC ID 6761.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wright, Girley
202-401-5070

PIC ID: 6762

PERFORMER: Iowa Department of Human Services
Des Moines, IA

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2001

Training, Education, Employment, and Management (TEEM) Project

This project will produce a process evaluation of the TEEM project. The TEEM project consolidates TANF and LIHEAP into a single cash assistance program. TEEM includes the following major provisions: (1) a social contract, (2) increased work incentives, (3) sanctions, (4) raised asset limits, and (5) incentives for family stability and marriage.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wright, Girley
202-401-5070

PIC ID: 6830

PERFORMER: North Dakota Department of Health and Human Services
Bismarck ND

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2000

Virginia Independence Program

This project evaluates the State's TANF implementation, which continues policies begun under its welfare reform demonstration, Virginia Independence Program (VIP). Among the policies to be studied under the state's VIP are: (1) diversionary assistance, (2) a family cap, (3) time-limited assistance, (4) person responsibility agreements, (5) expanded earned income disregards, (6) school attendance requirements, (7) paternity establishment rules, (8) requiring minor parents to live in adult settings, (9) child immunization requirements, and (10) incentives promoting individual savings accounts and Medicaid and child care benefits.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Maniha, John
202-401-5372

PIC ID: 6831

PERFORMER: Virginia Commonwealth University
Richmond, VA

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/29/2002

Welfare Policy Typology Project

With the enactment of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA), there are few, if any, strict Federal requirements for welfare programs, and States are not required to submit descriptions of their policies in any detail. This project will lay the groundwork for a database that would contain key information about State welfare policies (including Temporary Assistance for Needy Families), State-funded maintenance-of-effort programs, and Federally funded child care assistance programs.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Yaffe, Alan
202-401-4537

PIC ID: 6837

PERFORMER: Urban Institute
Washington, DC

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/30/2000

Welfare Restructuring Project (WRP)

This project continues the evaluation of a welfare reform demonstration project. One of the key features is a time limit that requires some adult recipients to participate in community work experience after fifteen months (for two-parent families) or thirty months (for single-parent families) of receiving cash assistance.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Wright, Girley
202-401-5070

PIC ID: 6764

PERFORMER: State of Vermont, Department of Social Welfare
Waterbury, VT

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/30/2002

Welfare-to-Work: Monitoring the Impact of Welfare Reform on American Indian Families with Children

The overall purpose of this project is to monitor and document the implementation, and assess the impact of, welfare reform on American Indian families and reservations in Arizona caused by the evolving State and tribal responses to Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF). Extensive demographic, contextual, socioeconomic and case-level data are to be compiled from a variety of sources, and analyzed in order to document the baseline conditions and changing patterns, and to identify short-term outcomes. The researchers will: (1) use existing national data (e.g., Census, CPS, and SIPP) on American Indians to provide a context for the study of Arizona, (2) collect quarterly case- or household-level data on the welfare recipients on Indian reservations in Arizona to examine their characteristics and monitor changes in their situations under TANF, and (3) track and document TANF implementation by tribal entities using content analysis of relevant documents, in- depth telephone interviews and site visits. The evaluation of the long-term impact of the reform program is to be undertaken during the last four years of the project.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Faris, Hossein, Ph.D.
202-205-4922

PIC ID: 6832

PERFORMER: Washington University, School of Social Work
St. Louis, MO

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 09/30/2002

Wisconsin Pay for Performance/Self-Sufficiency First Evaluation

Under the self-sufficiency first portion of this Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) demonstration, applicants for AFDC who were not exempt from Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) had to complete 60 hours of JOBS activities prior to approval. Under the Pay for Performance portion of the demonstration, recipients were required to participate in up to 40 hours of JOBS activities per week, and for each hour the recipient did not participate, the AFDC grant and food stamp allotment was reduced by the Federal minimum wage.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Sternbach, Leonard
415-437-7671

PIC ID: 6838

PERFORMER: Wisconsin Department of Workforce Development
Madison, WI

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 10/30/1999

Youth Employment and Training Initiative (YETI)

The State will complete an evaluation of its Youth Employment and Training Initiative (YETI), which operated as a welfare reform demonstration from November 1993 until July 1997, when TANF was implemented in the State. YETI focused on inner-city youth in welfare families and provided counseling and classes designed to (1) help participants to stay in high- school and graduate, (2) increase life skills and self-esteem and reduce the incidence of pregnancies and substance abuse, (3) increase job-readiness and vocational skills, and (4) facilitate the transition from school to work. The overall objective of the project is to reduce the likelihood of welfare dependency among inner-city youth.

AGENCY SPONSOR: Office of Planning, Research, and Evaluation

FEDERAL CONTACT: Maniha, John
202-401-5372

PIC ID: 6821

PERFORMER: Illinois Department of Human Services
Springfield IL

EXPECTED DATE OF COMPLETION: 12/31/2000